商务英语口试必备手册 Marketing 市场营销 Marketing Channels 营销渠道

2018-12-19 09:30:30   Tag:





商务英语口试必备手册 Marketing 市场营销 Marketing Channels 营销渠道

Marketing intermediaries 营销中间渠道

Marketing channel 营销渠道

In-home selling 家中推销

Vending machine 自动售货机

Merchant wholesalers 商业批发商

Broker 经纪人

Agent 代理商

Miscellaneous 混杂的

Category 种类,类别

Eliminate 排除,消除

Middleman 中间商;经纪人

Distribution 分销

Utility 效用,功用

Telephone retailing 电话零售

Mail-order retailing 邮购零售

Saturate 使饱和

Nonstore retailing 非商店零售

Geographic concentration (顾客)地理分布的密集度

Populated market 顾客量大的市场

Perishable 易腐烂的,易死的;易凋谢的;不经久的

Deteriorate 使变坏;使变质;使恶化;使下降

Inventory 存货

Vandalism 破坏他人(或公共)财产的行为

Scrambled merchandising 各种商品混杂在一起销售

Pharmacies 药房;药店

Photo processing 相片冲印店


Functions of marketing intermediaries销售中间渠道的作用

A marketing channel is a group of interrelated organisation that directs the flow of products from producer to ultimate customers.


 The channels are also called marketing intermediaries.


 The two major categories of marketing intermediaries are wholesalers and retailers.


Wholesales are individuals and organisations that sell primarily to other sellers or industrials users.


Wholesale transactions generally innovle large quantities of goods.


 Retailers specialize in selling products to consumers.


They generally resell products that they obtain from whole-salers.


Consumers often wonder whether products would cost less if one or more marketing intermediaries could be eliminated from the distribution system.


Would cars be less expensive if customers could simply buy them straight from the manufacturer?


Perhaps, but think about the practical aspects involved.


How many consumers would be willing or able to go to Detroit to buy a car? Or maybe Japan?


If manufacturers offered cars for sale by mail order, how many consumers would buy one without seeing and test-driving it?


 Carmarkers selling vehicles directly to buyers from around theUnited Statesor around the world would be impossible.


Marketing intermediaries are vital in creating place, time, and possession utilities.


They ensure that products are available on a timely basis where they are needed.


Elminating intermediaries does not eliminate the need for their services, such as storage, delivery, and providing a product assortment.


Either the manufacturer, the consumer, or some other organization has to perform these essential services.


Withour intermediaries, most consumer purchases would be much less efficient.


Products probably would cost more, mot less.




(1)  Where do you usually do your shopping?


I usually do shopping in a supermarket.


(2)  Do you think marketing intermediaries are necessary when you want to buy products?(Why?/Why not?)


I think they are quite necessary. They make it more convenient for consumers to buy products, otherwise, consumers have to travel a long distance to go to the producer.


(3)  Do you think televised home shopping will be more popular in the future?(Why?/Why not?)


Yes. Because televised home shoppng services are available 24 hours, it is very convenient for you to buy goods at any times. What’s more, you don’t need to go out for shopping, it saves you a lot of trouble.


(4)  Do you think direct marketing a form of retailing? What are the major forms of direct marketing?


Yes, direct marketing is one of the fast-growing forms of retailing. The major forms of direct marketing are telephone retailing and mail-order retailing.



What is important when…?

Selecting the type of marketing channel        选择营销渠道时要注意哪些要点?

l  Geographic concentration of the market     市场的地理分布情况

l  Services provided by middlemen            中间商提供的服务



Geographic concentration of the market is an important factor to consider. When most of a firm’s prospective customers are concentrated in a few geographic areas, direct sales is practical. When customers are geographically dispersed, direct sale is likely to be impractical because of high travel costs. Sellers may establish branches in densely populated markets and use middlemen in less concentrated amrkets.

It’s also important to consider services provided by middlemen. Each producer should select middlement offering those marketing services that the producer either is unable to provide or cannot economically perform.

In addition, it’s important to consider the perishability of products. Some goods, including many agricultural products, physically deteriorate quickly. Other goods, such as clothing, perish in a fashion sense. Perishable products require direct or very short channels.



Opening a supermarket

Your company decides to open a supermarket in your city. You have been asked to help with it. Discuss the situation together, and decide:

l  what factors the company should consider for high sales volumes

l  how the company can recruit employees



l  为了使超市能达到高销售量公司应考虑哪些因素

l  公司如何招聘员工

A: There are many factors to consider. First, we must consider the location. I think the supermarket should be located in the downtown area.

B: If so, then the cost of renting the space would be high, and the parking spaces would be limited. I think our supermarket can be located in the uptown area. Because our supermarket may take large space, and the transport now is very convenient.

A: What about the atmosphere of the supermarket? I think we can use warm and bright colors to creat a warm atmosphere.

B: It sounds good. We can also pay some sort background music so that shoppers will enjoy their shopping. What’s more, we must keep the supermarket clean any tidy, and goods should be displayed in a way for consumers to find easily.

A: That’s true, the aisles should be wide enough for shopping trolleys to pass, employees should be dressed in a well-designed uniform. In one word, we must make the atmosphere appealing, then shoppers would like to shop in our supermarket.

B: Should we use scramble merchandising? I think we can offer pharmacies, and photo processing.

A: Yes, we can even offer banking services, which would be very convenient for consumers to draw money.

B: We are also given the task of offering suggestion for recruiting employees. What do you think we can do to recruit employees?

A: I think we can put an ad in a local newspaper.

B: We can also advertise the job on the Internet, young people often go online to search for recruitment news.

A: We may also ask a recruitment company to do the recruitment job for us.

B: But we’ll have to pay some money for it.

A: Well, as you know, the job of searching for, interviewing and selecting staff is difficult and time-consuming. What’s more, our managers may lack the skill of finding the right people.

B: All right, we can first put an job advertisement in newspapers or on the Internet, then ask a recruitment to recruit staff for us.


(1)    What services do wholesalers perform?


They can absorb inventory costs for manufacturers, help promote the products they sell, and provide both retailers and producers with valuable information about product demand, buying trends, and prices, etc.


(2)    What do you think nonstore retailing includes?


Nonstore retailing includes in-home selling, direct marketing, and vending machines.


(3)    What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of vending machines?


Vending machines offer the advantage of 24-hours-a-day operation with no sales staff. The main drawback includes the costs of frequent servicing and needed repairs, as well as the threat of vandalism.


(4)    What are the types of wholesalers?


They are merchant wholesalers, brokers and agents, manufacturers’ and retailers’ branches and offices, and miscellaneous wholesalers.


(5)    Do you think the location of a retail store important? Why?/Why not?


The location of a retail store is very important, because a good location can offer high profits for the store.


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