商务英语口试必备手册 Human Resources Management 人力资源管理Time Management 时间管理

2018-12-19 08:51:51   Tag:

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商务英语口试必备手册 Human Resources Management 人力资源管理Time Management 时间管理

All walk of life 各行各业

Amass 积聚(财富),积累

Block in/out 草拟(大纲等);画出…..的草图,勾出(大样)

Contingency 可能发生的事情;不测事件;紧急情况

Cluttered 凌乱的,杂乱的

Distraction 分散注意力或分心的事情

Flag 用标记表明

Frenzy 狂乱

Logistics 物流,后勤

Loathe 延误,憎恨《口》不喜欢

Make sense 《口》言之有理,是合情合理的,是明智的

Night owl 晚睡的人,夜里工作者

Optimum 最合适的,最优的,最佳的

Optional 可选择的,非强制的

Pinnacle (喻)顶峰,顶点

Prioritise 按优先顺序列出;确定(事项)的优先次序

Procrastination 拖延,耽搁;因循

Refreshments 茶点,点心,饮料

Stick to 坚守,坚持;忠于,信守

Tip 指点,指导;忠告

Trick 技巧,技艺,窍门

Trivial 琐碎的,不重要的

Whiz (z) ()极其聪明的人;有特长的人;非同寻常的人;(杰出的)专家;奇才


 

9 Tips for More Effective Time Management

更加有效地安排时间的九大招

(1) Spend time planning and organizing. 花时间做计划、作安排。

Using time to think and plan is time well-spent.

花时间思考与做计划是值得的。

 In fact, if you tail to take time for planning, you are, in effect, planning to fail.

如果你没有花时间做计划,实际上就等于你的计划失败。

 Organize in a way that makes sense to you.

合情合理地安排你的时间。

If you need color and pictures, use a lot on your calendar or planning book.

如果你需要利用色彩和图案,那么就在你的日历本或者计划册上标上色彩和图案。

Some people need to have papers filed away; other get their creative energy from their piles.

一些人需要把文件归的井井有条,而有的人却反而从杂乱堆放的文件中获得无穷的经历。

So forget the “shoulds” and organize your way.

因此无所谓应该,而是要以适合自己的方式来计划、安排时间。

(2) Set goals. 设立目标

Goals give your life, and the way you spend your time, direction.

目标使你的人生有了方向,使你的时间安排有了导向。

When asked the secret to amassing such a fortune, one of the famous Hunt brothers from Texas replied:” First you’ve got to decide what you want.”

当人们问德克萨斯州闻名遐迩的亨特兄弟:积聚如此巨大的财富有何秘诀?亨特兄弟(之一)回答道:首先,你得决定你要什么。

Set goals which are specific, measurable, realistic and achievable.

设立的目标得具体、可衡量、合乎实际,并(经过努力)能够实现。

Your optimum goals are those which cause you to “stretch” but not “break” as you strive for achievement.

最佳的目标应该是在你努力实现的过程中能使你紧张而倾注全力,而不会导致身心崩溃

Goals can give creative people a much-needed sense of direction.

目标能给富有创造性的人群必要的方向引导。

(3) Use a To Do list. 采用计划表,列出要做的事项。

Some people thrive using a daily To Do list which they construct either the last thing the previous day or first thing in the morning.

有些人每天将要做的事项(从前一天的最后一件事情或当天的第一件事情开始)列表,并依当日计划表行动。

Such people may combine a To Do list with a calendar or schedule.

这种类型的人会将计划表和日历或日程表结合起来。

Others prefer a “running” To Do list which is continuously being updated.

另一些人则倾向于滚动的、不断更新的计划表。

Or, you may prefer a combination of the two previously described To Do lists.

或者你更可能喜欢综合前面所描述的那两种格式的计划表。

Whatever method works is best for you.

哪种计划表对你起作用,对你而言就是最好的。

 Don’t be afraid to try a new system?

不要害怕尝试新的方法。

You just might find one that works even better than your present one!

你也许会发现一种比你先行方法更行之有效的方式!

(4) Be flexible. 留出灵活支配的时间。

Allow time for interruptions and distractions.

给杂事留出时间。

Time management experts often suggest planning for just 50 percent or less of one’s time.

时间管理专家经常建议人们只对一半或更少的时间做出计划。

With only 50 percent of your time planned, you will have the flexibility to handle interruptions and the unplanned” emergency.”

只计划50%的时间,你将有灵活的时间来处理杂七杂八的事情和无法预知的急事

 When you expect to be interrupted, schedule routine tasks.

如果预测会受到杂事的干扰,那就制定日程表。

Save (or make) larger blocks of time for your priorities.

为优先事项留出大块时间。

 When interrupted, ask Alan Lakein’s crucial question, “ What is the most important thing I can be doing with my time right now?” to help you get back on track fast.

如果受干扰分心,就用艾伦 莱肯的决定性问题来问问自己:这会儿做哪件事对我最重要?以帮助你迅速回归正轨。

(5) Eliminate the urgent. 解决紧急问题

Urgent tasks have short-term consequences while important tasks are those with long-term, goal-related implications.

紧急问题突显短期效果,而重要问题却有长期的、与目标相关的意义。

Work towards reducing the urgent things you must do so you’ll have time for your important priorities.

解决了你必须处理的紧急问题,你才有时间去处理重要的、得优先解决的问题。

Flagging or highlighting items on your To Do list or attaching a deadline to each item may help keep important items from becoming urgent emergencies.

在计划表上对一些事项做些突出的标记或在每一件事项后加注最后期限,可以使重要的事情不至于演变成紧急事件。

(6) Practice the art of intelligent neglect. 学会忽视的艺术。

Eliminate from your life trivial tasks or those tasks which do not have long-term consequences for you.

忽略生活中的琐事或对你没有长远意义的事情。

Can you delegate or eliminate any of your To Do list?

你能不能将计划表上的事情委托他人做,或删去不必要的事项?

 Work on those tasks which you alone can do.

处理那些你单枪匹马就能完成的事项。

(7) Avoid being a perfectionist. 避免完美主义倾向。

In the Malaysian culture, only the gods are considered capable of producing anything perfect.

在马来西亚文化中,人们认为只有神才能做到尽善尽美。

Whenever something is made, a flaw is left on purpose so the gods will not be offended.

每完成一件事情时,故意留些瑕疵才不至于冒犯神灵。

Yes, some things need to be closer to perfect than others, but perfectionism, paying unnecessary attention to detail, can be a form of procrastination.

毫无疑问,有些事情需要尽可能做到接近完美,但是绝对的完美主义(过分注重细节,做没必要的挑剔),在某种意义上就等于拖延。

(8) Conquer procrastination. 克服拖延

One technique to try is the “Swiss cheese” method described by Alan Lakein.

技巧之一就是尝试艾伦 莱肯描述的瑞士干酪法。

 When you are avoiding something, break it into smaller tasks and do just one of the smaller tasks or set a timer and work on the big task for just 15 minutes.

每当你要面对不愿意干的事情时,将此工作细分,每次完成其中的一个小任务,或者设定时间,只用15分钟来完成一项大任务。

By doing a little at a time, eventually you’ll reach a point where you’ll want to finish.

每次做一点,积少成多,最终你会达到终点,顺利完成任务。

(9) Learn to say “ no”. 学会说

 Such a small word? And so hard to say.

这么一个小词但却难以说出口。

Focusing on your goals may help.

聚焦于你的目标也许能有所帮助。

Blocking time for important, but often not scheduled, priorities such as family and friends can also help.

对于重要,但往往没有计划的优先事件,如那些亲朋好友也能帮助解决的问题,得限制时间。

But first you must be convinced that you and your priorities are important.

不过首先你必须确信你和你的优先问题确实是重要的。

That seems to be the hardest part in learning to say “no”.

这似乎是在学会说的过程中最难的一部分。

 Once convinced of their importance, saying “no” to the unimportant in life gets easier.

但是,当你一旦确认了事件的重要性,对生活中无足轻重的事情说就容易多了。

 

PART ONE: Interview

(1)  How important is it to manage time effectively?(Why?)

有效管理时间有多重要?

According to Benjamin Franklin, time is money. Like money, time must be explicitly managed. Besides, time is limited and life is limited, so nobody can afford to waste time. To some extent, wasting time is wasting life and wasting money.

 

(2)  Do you think it is valuable to set goals?(Why?/Why not?)

你认为设定目标有意义吗?(为什么?)

Yes. By setting goals, you know precisely what you want to achieve, what you have to concentrate on and what is merely a distraction. It gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation.

 

(3)  What do you think can contribute to effective goal setting?(Why?)

你认为什么有助于设定有效目标?

To set goals effectively, it’s important to set realistic goal. You need to objectively evaluate yourself, knowing not only the obstacles in the way and your strengths. Don’t set your goal either too high or too low.

 

(4)  Is it important to set aside time for exercise when managing a busy schedule?(Why?/Why not?)

当日程繁忙时,安排时间进行锻炼重要吗?(为什么?)

Yes. As the saying goes, all work and no play makes jack a dull boy. If you set aside time for exercise, you will improve your overall physical health, sleep and work efficiency, and also better manage your stress.

 

PART TWO: Mini-presentation

What’s important when…?

Managing a busy schedule       处理繁忙日程时,需考虑哪些要点?

l  Time management skills      时间管理技巧

l  Others’ cooperation          与他人的合作

 

When managing a busy schedule, time management skills are important. They are essential skills for effective people. Keeping to-do lists would remind you of all essential tasks to be finished. It’s a powerful method of organizing yourself and a way of reducing stress. Deciding work priorities can help you concentrate on the right things which are important and urgent. Tackling problems in order of importance allows you to separate important jobs from the many time-wasting trivial ones.

In addition to time management skills, it’s also important to get corporation from those around you. Let your colleagues, spouse, family members, and others know about your effects to manage a busy schedule, and thus you can be free from interruption. Sometimes it may be a good idea for a busy bee to turn to other people.

Besides, use of technology can be important as well. Voice-mail, conference, Google and digital library through computers and the internet now enable you to contact clients, doing business, search information in office or at home instead of the time-consuming travelling to other cities/countries, bookstores and libraries. New technology brings us convenience and high-efficiency.

 

PART THREE: Discussion

Managing time effectively

Some colleagues in your office spend their days in a frenzy of activity and feel overburdened with work, but achieve very little. You have been asked to make recommendations about how to improve the situation. Discuss the situation together, and decide:

l  what caused the inefficiency

l  how to manage time effectively

有效管理时间

你们办公室的部分同事成天忙忙碌碌,效率却不高。请你们提出建议,改变该局面。讨论并决定:

l  效率低的原因

l  如何有效地管理时间

A You see, some colleagues spend their days in a frenzy of activity, but achieve very little. Do you know why?

B: The reason may be various. Heavy workload cannot be neglected. As you know, three people have left for a better-paid position. We are short of hands here.

A: So, to change the situation, perhaps more employees should be recruited to shoulder and divide the numerous tasks.

B: Definitely. Besides, bad time management maybe responsible too. To improve the situation, it’s important to train the colleagues how to manage time effectively.

A: I cannot agree more. As to manage time effectively, I’d like to share my experience with them. Normally, when I have to deal with overwhelming problems, I always keep a list of all necessary tasks that need to carry out. In this way I never feel out of control.

B: So they may have a try.

A: Yes, why not. Then I prioritize all tasks in order of importance and urgency. This allows me to tackle the most important jobs first, and not to waste time on trivial tasks, and helps me avoid getting stressed by a large number of unimportant jobs.

B: That can be very practical. In this way, they will naturally concentrate on results instead of on being busy.

A: Yes, exactly.

B: Your experience reminds me of Benjamin Franklin. Once he said, “ Let all your things have their places and let each part of your business have its time.” To manage time successful, it’s important to let each part of your business have its time.

A: Yes, from Benjamin’s achievements and my experience, we can see the importance of identifying the time available.

B: By the way, when are you most efficient in one day?

A: In the early morning.

B: So, you are a “ morning person “. As you know, every body has his/her biological prime time, some maybe “morning persons” like you, some maybe” night owls” and other maybe “late afternoon whizzes”. So when scheduling, it’s also important to find creative time for priorities. In creative time, you can achieve 80% of results with only 20% of the effort.

A: So whatever you are, set aside your best time for your priorities.

B: Yes. Besides, we should also block in appropriate contingency/flexible time for unpredictable interruptions.

A: Lastly, it’s also beneficial to pay attention to office logistics. Always make office and desk neat and comfortable for yourself, and optionally tidy and comfortable for others.

B:I cannot agree more. Letting all your things have their places surely help you manage time effectively.

Follow-up questions

(1)    Is it essential to keep paperwork in a file system?(Why?/Why not?)

将文件归类重要吗?(为什么?)

Yes. To keep paperwork in a good file system instead of cluttered files on desks can keep offices from being messy and can help manage time effectively.

(2)    Is it important to know about your talents and weaknesses when finding a job?

找工作时,了解自己的优势与不足重要吗?(为什么?)

Yes. Because it makes a lot of sense to find a job that suits your strengths, and where your weaknesses do not matter. With a job of your strengths, you are sure to be more efficient, productive and successful.

 

(3)    Would you volunteer to do things that other people should do in an office?

在办公室里你会主动去分担别人的工作吗?(为什么?)

No. it’s a sign of time-wasting and bad time management, since everybody has his -/her focus and responsibility.

 

(4)    If you are unable to concentrate, what would you do?(Why?)

如果注意力不集中,你怎么做?(为什么?)

I won’t force myself to concentrate, instead I will take a break immediately, have some refreshments or soft drinks to make myself energetic again, or have some exercise, or listen to music.

 

(5)    Is it important to learn to love your job?(Why?/Why not?)

学会喜欢自己的工作重要吗?(为什么?)

Yes, if you don’t want to quit your present job. For people are much more likely to do their job effectively if they enjoy and love it than if they dislike and loathe(厌恶) it. And it’s important for your own quality of life.

 


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