阅读理解语义理解性题目解题方法及练习

题目要求对文中个别单词、关键词、词组或句子做出解释。解答这类题目时需要对有关的上下文,甚至整篇文章的内容建立准确、立体的理解才能做出正确答案

语义理解性题目:题目要求对文中个别单词、关键词、词组或句子做出解释。解答这类题目时需要对有关的上下文,甚至整篇文章的内容建立准确、立体的理解才能做出正确答案。对于这类题目我们可以用下面的解题方法来解答:

(1)快速阅读文章后的4~5道题目,并将题目中的关键词(一般为实词,含有重要信息)用笔划下来。这样做的目的有两个:一是获得将要阅读的文章的大概意思,二是为解题做好准备。

(2) 快速阅读原文。一边阅读一边划出文章中的含有重要信息的词、短语或句子。如果将文章中的重要信息都划出来了,到第三步解题时寻找所需信息就容易了。这比盲目地寻找方便得多。

(3)根据文章中所阐述的事实细节和上下文的暗示与线索进行综合分析,然后做出推断预测或得出合情合理的结论。因此,考生必须细读全文,不仅要懂得文章的表层意义,还要理解深层的内含;不仅要掌握作者的观点倾向,还要获取字里行间隐含的信息。但同时必须提醒考生的是切忌无根无据地随意猜想或推理,把白的东西说成是黑的,把自己的观点当作是作者的。也就是说你所做的每一个推断或引申都应该是合情合理的,具有充分依据的。

Passage 1

  We’ve talked about snails (蜗牛) and their slow move. But much of the time snails don’t move at all. They are in their shells (壳) —sleeping.

  Hot sun will dry out a snail’s body. So at the least sign of hot sun, a snail draws its body into his shell. A snail will die in a heavy rain. So when it rains, a snail does the same thing, too. A snail can sleep for as long as it needs to. It spends all the winter months in its shell, asleep.

  In the spring the snail wakes up. Its body, about three inches long, comes out from the shell. When hungry, the snail looks for food. Its eyes, at the end of the top feelers (触角), are very weak. But its sense (感觉) of smell is very strong. It helps the snail to find food and the new greens.

  A snail’s mouth is no bigger than the point of a pin (大头针). Yet it has 256,000 teeth! The teeth are very small, and you can’t see them. If you put a snail in a hard paper box, it will eat its way out! And if a snail wears out its teeth, it will grow new ones.

1.A snail _________.

  A. moves more slowly at night  B. has thousands of feet

  C. doesn’t move at all         D. sleeps much of the time

2.In the sentence “A snail draws its body into its shell”, the word “draw” means _____.

  A. to make with a pencil     B. to push  C. to pull      D. to move away

3.From the story, we know _________.

  A. a snail’s shell is very thin B. a snail can’t see well

  C. a snail’s nose is quite short D. a snail’s body changes in different seasons

  4.A snail goes to sleep when _____.

  A. it feels hungry B. it is put into a paper box

  C. spring is coming D. it rains heavily

  5.Which of the following is wrong?

  A. In winter the snail doesn’t eat or move.  B.A snail doesn’t like living under the sun.

  C.The snail’s teeth can’t be worn out.  D.The snail’s nose helps to find food.

【答案与解析】这篇短文向我们介绍了蜗牛的生活习性。无论是烈日当空,还是大雨滂沱,蜗牛都会像整个冬季一样,呆在壳里睡觉。春天来临的时候,蜗牛就拖着三英寸长的身体从壳里钻出来,靠它那灵敏的触角觅食。别看它的嘴比大头针尖大不了多少,却长着25万多颗牙齿呢!

  1.D。根据开头的“But much of the time snails don’t move at all. They are in their shells ----sleeping.”这句话,显然只有D是正确答案。

  2.C。本题属熟词新义。由“Hot sun will dry out a snail’s body. So at the least sign of hot sun, a snail draws its body into his shell.”一句的意思,尤其是要仔细考虑关键词“into”对猜测词义的辅助作用,可知蜗牛一旦碰到炙热的太阳,就会把身体蜷缩进壳里。

  3.B。答案即是“Its eyes, at the end of the top feelers are very weak.”这句话。

 

 4.D。关键要理解好“So when it rains, a snail does the same thing, too.”这句话中的“the same thing”的意思。事实上,由“In the spring the snail wakes up. … comes out from the shell.”和“…in a hard paper box, it will eat its way out!”是很容易排除B、C和A的。

  5.C。根据短文最后一句话“And if a snail wears out its teeth, it will grow new ones.”,可以判断C项是明显的错误。

Passage2

 This dictionary tells you about English words and how to use them in reading, writing and speaking English. It not only gives the meaning of words, it can also help you with spelling, word building, grammar and pronunciation.

  To use your dictionary correctly, you need to understand how the dictionary works. At the front of the book, you will find some exercises to help you make the most use of your dictionary.

  If you look up the word “colour”, you will find two spellings for this word. “Colour” is used in British English, while “color” is used in American English. When such a thing happens, the dictionary shows it with the word “BrE” for British English and “AmE” for American English.

 

The dictionary also helps you pronounce words correctly. It uses a special alphabet (特殊字母表) to show pronunciation. If you turn to the inside back face, you will see all the phonetic letters (音标) with some words to show you how they are pronounced. Just have a look this page when you’re not sure how to say a word.

  The most important reason for using a dictionary is to find out the meaning of a word—its definition.

  In this dictionary, the definitions have been written using only 2000 words. This means that the definitions of even the most difficult words are simply explained (简单解释) and easy to understand.

  When a word has more than one meaning, read all the meanings until you find the one that correctly tells the use of the word you are looking for.

  Most of the words in this dictionary can be used by people in all parts of the world.

        1.This dictionary cannot help you with _____.

  A. singing B. grammar C. spelling D. pronunciation

  2. ____of the words in the dictionary have two spellings.

  A. All B. One C. Few D. Some

  3.The AmE spelling of the Chinese word “颜色”in this dictionary is______.

  A. colour B. collar C. color D. corner

  4.The phonetic alphabet helps you each word correctly.

  A. understand B. write C. say D. know

  5.The Chinese meaning of “definition” here is ______.

  A. 词性 B. 词条 C. 词义 D. 词库

6.How many words are there in this dictionary?_________.

  A. Two thousand B. One thousand C. One hundred D. We don’t know

  7.The dictionary explains ______.  

  A. some of the difficult words B. all the words in a simple way

  C. all the easy words D. the words of two meanings

 

【答案与解析】这篇短文可能是一本英文词典的“序言”,介绍了这本词典的用途和使用方法。另外,该文中还着重提到了American English和British English在拼写上存在的差异。

  1.A.通过短文第一段的第一个句子,几乎不费力气就能选出正确答案。

        2.D.此题需要仔细推敲第二段文字,通过理解段意(如果熟悉英文词典或懂得一些英文词典的使用常识则可以直接进行选择)和推敲四个选项的词语意思而确定。All和One都属于“走极端”的选项,不能入选;Few本义是“几乎没有”,不符合文意,只有D项正确。

  3.C.答案在第三段。文中“while ‘color’ is used in American English.”已给出明确答案。

  4.C.通过文中“We use a special alphabet(特殊字母表)to show pronunciation.”一句判断。关键词是“pronunciation(发音)”,清楚这个词的意思,我们无疑会选择 C。

 5.C.应重点参考5—6段。实际上,第五段中已有“to find out the meaning of a word—its DEFINITION.”。“meaning of a word”中没有生词,那么,选择对应的汉语“词义”岂不易如反掌!

  6.D.要读完全文后,才能确认。因为文中提到的数字只有一个“2000”,但它决不是词典的收词数,而是用来“简单解释”词义的用词数。文中并没有提及词典的“收词量”,因此,答案应该是D。

  7.B.答案就在“This means that the definitions of even the most difficult words are simply explained(简单解释)and easy to understand.”一句中。选B最为恰当。

Passage 3

  First Frenchman: I once heard someone shout, "Look out," I put my head out of a window and a basin (盆) of water fell on me. It seems that "Look out" may mean "don‘t look out."

  Second Frenchman: Once I was on a ship and heard the captain (船长) shout, "All hands on deck," I put my hands on the deck and someone walked on them.

  Third Frenchman: I once visited an English friend early in the morning and the maid who came to the door and said, "He’s not up yet. Come back in half an hour," When I went again for him, she said, "He‘s not down yet."

  "If he’s not up and he’s not down, where is he?" I asked.

She said, "He’s still in bed. When I say ‘He’s not up ’ I mean ‘he has not yet got up’. When I say ‘He’s not down ’ I mean ‘he has not yet come downstairs,’"

  1."Look out" here means “ _______”.

  A. put your head out of the window and look B. Take care

  C. I’m going to pour the water D. Help me

  2."All hands on deck" means “ _______ ”.

  A.All the sailors gather ( 集合 )on deck B. Give your hands to me

  C.Put your right hand and left hand on deck D. Shake your hands with me

  3.When the maid said, “He’s not up yet.” She meant that _______ .

  A. he has not grown up yet B. he has not yet got up  

  C. he has not woke up yet D. he has not yet come upstairs

  4.When the third Frenchman went back, the English friend _______ .

  A. was washing his face B. was having his breakfast

  C. was still in an upstairs room D. was reading a newspaper

  5.Which do you think is the best title for this article?

  A. Three Frenchmen and their English Friends B. The English Language

  C. Three French Stories D. What a Language!

Passage 3

  【答案与解析】习语是最让英语学习者感到头疼的东西。本文讲述了三个法国人曲解英语习语的经历,读后让人忍俊不禁。第一个法国人误将“Look out!”理解为“向外看”(实际意义是“当心!”);第二个法国人将“All hands on deck”误认为是“把手放到甲板上”的意思(实际上该短语的意思是“所有海员到甲板上集合”);第三名法国人对那位女仆话语中的“up”和“down”弄得昏了头,以致于闹了个“If he’s not up and he’s not down, where is he?”的笑话。

  1.B.由英语知识或根据“I put my head out of a window and a basin of water fell on me. It seems that ‘Look out’ may mean ‘don’t look out.’”可知。

  2.A.根据整体意思及“…and someone walked on them.”可知这是集合的口令。

  3.B.文中“When I say ‘He’s not up ’, I mean ‘he has not yet got up’.”一句已经说得很明白。

  4.C.“…I mean ‘he has not yet come downstairs,’”这句话是解题的关键。

  5.D.整篇文章讲了三个由于对英语不很精通而误解以致于闹了笑话的故事。行文间流露出作者对英语这门语言的“不可望文生义”发出了感叹。选D既合题意又具有极强的幽默味道。

Passage 4

  Bill Clinton took office (就职)on January 20,1993 and became the 42nd U.S. President (总统). He is the first U.S. president who was born after World War II. He is also one of the youngest of all U.S. presidents.  

  Clinton was born in a poor family. Three months before he was born, his father, William Blats, died. When he was small, his mother remarried (再婚) Norger Clinton, so the boy‘s family name was changed.

  In the summer of 1963, Clinton was asked to visit the city of Washington. During his visit, he met President Kennedy in the White House. At that time, he wanted to become a president, and now he is!

  1. Clinton became the 42nd U.S. president when he was______.

  A. thirty B. about forty C. forty-seven D.37years old

  2. Clinton’s father died______.

  A. after 1946 B. before Clinton was born C. before World War II D. when Clinton was young

  3. Why was the boy‘s name changed?

  A.Because he became a president   B.Because his family was very poor

  C. Because his father was dead   D. Because his mother remarried Norger Clinton

4. In 1963 Clinton came to the city of Washington___.

  A. to take part in an exam B. for his holidays C. for a visit D. to have a meeting with Kennedy

  5. Which one of the following is Not right?

  A.Everybody can visit the president in the White House

  B. All the U.S. presidents work in the White Horse

  C.Clinton wanted to become a president after he saw President Kennedy

  D. The White House is in the city of Washington

Passage 4

  【答案与解析】这是一篇关于美国总统克林顿的人物传记。克林顿是二战后美国的第一任总统,他是美国最年轻的总统之一。克林顿出生于一个贫苦的家庭,其父早亡,后随继父改姓克林顿。克林顿被邀参观华盛顿市期间,在白宫受到总统肯尼迪接见,当时就有做总统的想法。

  1.C.根据“He is the first U.S. president who was born after World War II.”这一句话,可知克林顿是在第二次世界大战之后出生的。故可推知答案为C。

  2.B.本题属细节理解题。“Three months before he was born, his father ,William Blats, died.”是答案的出处。

  3.D.本题同样也是细节理解题。答案就在第二段的末句中。

  4.B.短文末段的首句已交代的非常清楚。

  5.C.文章的最后一句话是解答本题的关键。


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