中考阅读理解逻辑推理性题目解题方法及练习

中考阅读理解逻辑推理性题目解题方法及练习

这种题目有一定难度,往往不能直接从文中找到答案,而必须根据上下文及其相互间的关系或对整篇文章进行深层理解后,才能找到答案。有时甚至还得联系作者的意图、态度等弦外之音、文外之意加以推理,才能获得正确答案。应从情节所提供的基本事实出发,寻找一定规律,如:时间关系、条件关系、因果关系、比较关系、转折关系等作为推理根据。 

    下面我们一起来看一篇文章,希望你先做完然后再看分析。 Passage 1

  Are you carrying too much on your back at school? You’re not alone. Back experts in the United States are worried that young students are having back and neck problems as a result of carrying too much in their backpacks (schoolbags).

  “It hurts my back when I run,” said Oberlin Reyes, a student in Virginia. “It’s hard to get up the stairs with my backpack, because it’s too heavy.”

  Oberlin is among students whose backpacks were weighed for a week in a recent study.

  They had regular backpacks with two straps (带子) to carry them, but a number of students with heavy loads had switched to rolling backpacks (which have wheels and can roll on the ground).

  Shirley Park, whose backpack weighed 10 kilograms, said she changed to a rolling backpack because she was starting to have back pain.

 How much is too much? Experts say students should carry no more than 10 to 15 percent of their own body weight.

  A few students had one suggestion to lighten the load: less homework.

  P.S. (附) Doctor’s suggestion:

  ① Lighten the load. Clean out binders (活页材料) and take home only the books you need that night.

  ② Wide straps are better. They send out the weight over your shoulders more evenly (均匀). And be sure to wear both straps rather than hanging the pack over one shoulder.

  ③ Pack smart. The heavier things should be packed closed to the back.

  ④ Bend both knees when you pick up the pack, and don’t just bend over at the waist (腰).

  1. “_____” is the main idea of the text.

  A. The problem of backpacks is worth studying  B. The problem made by heavy backpacks

  C. What is the best backpack for a student  D. How to make students’ backpacks light

  2. According to Enderlin Reyes and Shirley Park, we know ______.

  A. students have to do too much homework  B. backpacks have to carry heavy backpacks

  C. backpacks without wheels are bad for students

  D. too much homework leaves students no free time

 3.The expression “switched to” in the text perhaps means ______.

  A. started to use B. turned to C. caught up D. used for

  4. According to the passage, it’s better for a student of 40 kilograms to carry a backpack of _____ at most by the words of experts.

  A. 10 kg B. 8 kg C. 6 kg D. 7 kg

  5.If students follow the doctor’s suggestions they ______.

  A.may lighten their backpacks  B.can learn how to help themselves

  C.may feel their backpacks are lighter  D.will know how to wear backpacks

Passage 1

  【答案与解析】这篇短文反映了学生书包过重这一引发人们思考的生活现实。书包过重引起了学生身体的不适。文中引用了几位学生对沉重书包的感想和体会,有的学生甚至还在书包上安装了轮子。专家认为书包重量不应超过学生体重的10%-15%。学生则认为减少作业量才能彻底解决这一问题。为了减小过重书包对学生身体造成的伤害,短文最后还附了医生的四点建议。

  1.D。根据首段末句及所附医生的建议可知选项D乃是文章主旨。

  2.A。短文前两句是本题答案之所在。

  3.A。根据该词组所在句子及上下文意思,“许多学生使用带有轮子,可在地上滚动的书包”可以推测选项A的解释合乎文意。

 4.C。专家建议学生书包重量应在他本人体重的10% 和15%之间。所以一个体重为40千克的学生所背书包的重量应是6千克。

        5. C。显然,专家所提四项建议的目的是让学生的书包轻一些。  

 

  现在我们来总结一下逻辑推理性阅读理解题常见题干:

   1.From the story we know that___________________.

   2. We can infer (推断) from the story that___________.

   3.According to the writer, _____________.

   4.In the passage the writer tries to tell us that __________.

   5. Which of the following is the writer’s attitude(态度)?

   6. From the text we can guess the writer’s team is___________.

   7. According to the story , what would happen next

   8.The writer suggests(暗示) that ___________.

   9.The writer wants to prove (证明) that_________.

  10. Which of the following is implied(暗示) in the passage?

  11. The writer doesn’t agree that ____________.

  12. We may infer that during the summer holiday ___________.

希望你能记住这些题干的含义,掌握分析的方法,还有一点需要说明,

在做这类题关键是对整篇文章的理解,遇到个别生词不要强求理解具体含义,可以根据上下文理解整句的含义。下面有两篇练习,你可以根据我们的讲解测验一下自己有没有收获。      I have loved my mother’s desk since I was just tall enough to see above the top of it as Mother sat doing letters. Standing by her chair, looking at the ink bottle, pens, and white paper, I decided that the act of writing must be the most wonderful thing in the world

    Years later, during her final illness, Mother kept different things for my sister and brother. But the desk,” she’d said again, “ is for Elizabeth.”

 I never saw her angry, never saw her cry. I knew she loved me; she showed it in action. But as a young girl, I wanted heart-to-heart talks between mother and daughter.

    They never happened. And a gulf opened between us. I was “too emotional.” But she lived “ on the surface”.

    As years passed and I had my own family. I loved my mother and thanked her for our happy family. I wrote in careful words and asked her to let me know in any way she chose that she did forgive me.

     I posted the letter and waited for her answer. None came.

     My hope turned to disappointment, then little interest and, finally, peace, it seemed that nothing happened.

I couldn’t be sure that the letter had even got to Mother. I only knew that I had written it, and I could stop trying to make her into someone she was not.

     Now the present of her desk told me, as she had never been able to, that she was pleased that writing was my chosen work. I cleaned the desk carefully and found some papers inside— a photo of my father and a one-page letter, folded and refolded many times.

     Give me an answer, my letter asks, in any way you choose. Mother, you always chose the act that speaks louder than words.

    

(    ) 1.The passage shows that _______________.

      A. Mother was cold on the surface but kind in her heart to her daughter

      B. Mother was too serious about everything her daughter had done

      C. Mother cared much about her daughter in words

      D. Mother wrote to her daughter in careful words

(    )2. What did Mother do with her daughter’s letter asking for forgiveness?

      A. She had never received the letter

      B. For years, she often talked about the letter.

      C. She didn’t forgive her daughter at all in all her life.

      D. She read the letter again and again till she died.

例2.  

      Several years ago, cell phones were very expensive. Only important people and people with a lot of money had them. These days, the prices have been greatly falling, and they come in small sizes and different colors. So more and more people, even high school students, have one in the hands.

      It is true that it’s an easy way to keep in touch with friends at any time and in any place. But in places like classrooms, movie theatres, and museums, where everyone should be quiet or talk in a low voice, we can also hear the ringing. Some drivers have accidents for using cell phones when driving. Worst of all, some students who can’t pay their phone bills do something illegal to get money. So,are cell phones really a help?

() 3. How does the writer feel about cell phones?

      A. They are really a help.

      B. They harm people’s health.

      C. He wants very much to know if they do people good.

      D. It’s all right to use them in theatre.

参考答案:1. A 2. D 3. 4. C


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