商务文本翻译的方法和技巧

2017-01-11 11:49:49   Tag��

商务英语

 

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商务文本翻译的方法和技巧:在实践中,商务文本的翻译有一定的处理方法和技巧,分别可以概括为转换、颠倒、增补和省略等。 (一)转换根据语言类型学,汉语属分析型语言,英语属分析综合参半型语言。在语序上汉语和英语均属“主谓宾”语言,但也存在殊异性。

【二】商务文本翻译的方法和技巧

在实践中,商务文本的翻译有一定的处理方法和技巧,分别可以概括为转换、颠倒、增补和省略等。

(一)转换

根据语言类型学,汉语属分析型语言,英语属分析综合参半型语言。在语序上汉语和英语均属“主谓宾”语言,但也存在殊异性。转换是指在商务文本的翻译中对语言的词性和表现方法做出改变。由于英语和汉语的表达习惯、句子结构和词汇的搭配关系均有差异,在翻译中往往难以做到词性和表现方法的一致。为了适应译的搭配关系均有差异,在翻译中往往难以做到词性和表现方法的一致。为了适应译文语言的表达习惯和语法规则,在商务文本翻译中必须运用词类和表现方法的转换技巧。

1. 词性的转换

1)动词和名词转换

1We regret to inform you that the result of examination was the emergence of disagreement between the shipment and the bill of lading.(遗憾地通知你方,检查的结果是出现了装运的货物与提单不一致的情况。)

2)美国与德国汽车制造商在欧洲市场竞争得异常激烈,迫使我们不得不改变投资计划。(Extremely keen competition between American and German vehicle manufacturers in the European market has compelled us to change our investment plan.

3The Events of Default, as used in this Contract, shall mean the occurrence, from time to time, of any of the following circumstances.(合同中使用的“违约事项”是指发生以下情形。) 分析:本句的“occurrence”本为名词,但在译成汉语时转换成动词更通达。

4The establishment of a joint venture in China is subject to examination and approval by the Ministry of Commerce of PRC.(在中国境内设立合营企业,必须经中华人民共和国商务部审批。)

5Until the publication or public announcement of a patent application, staff members of the Patent Office and persons involved shall have the duty to keep the contents of the patent application confidential.(在专利申请公布或公告之前,专利局的工作人员及有关人员对其内容负有保密义务。)

6)绝对不允许合同任何一方有违反合同支付条款的行为。(No violation by either party hereto of any payment clause or clauses can be tolerated.

7)卖方声明并保证,卖方将向买方交付完整、准确、有效的系统。该系统能够达到在产品说明与规格中规定的技术指标,并通过成功完成系统验收检测予以证明。(The Seller represents and warrants that it will deliver to the Buyer a complete, correct and valid system, capable of accomplishing the technical targets specified in Product Description and Specification, and proved by successful completion of the Acceptance Test of the System.

8)招揽订单时,代理商应将卖方成交条件、合同的一般条款充分通知顾客,也应该告知顾客,任何合同的订立都要由卖方确认。代理商应将其收到的订单立即转交给卖方,供卖方选择是否接受订单。(When soliciting orders, the Agent shall adequately advise customers of the general terms and conditions of the Seller’s sales note or contractual note and that any contract is subject to the confirmation of acceptance by the Seller. Agent shall immediately dispatch any order received to the Seller for its acceptance or rejection.

2)名词和形容词或副词转换

1The fair price connected with the superiority of varieties of our products will be able to guarantee our competitive edge in the international market.(我方各类产品价格公平,品质优良,能够确保在国际市场的竞争优势。)

2We find difficulty in raising a great number of funds when the government executes the tight money policy.(当政府实行紧缩银根政策时,我们觉得难以筹集大量资金。)

3The rights conferred upon the respective parties by the provisions of this Clause are additional to and do not prejudice any other rights the respective parties may have.(本条款的规定赋予各方权利,是对各方可能享有的其他权利的补充,而不是损害。)

4The supplier shall ensure that it is the lawful owner of the technology to be proved and that the technology provided is complete, accurate, effective and capable of attaining the technical targets specified in the contract.(供方应保证自己是所提供的技术的合法拥有者,并且保证所提供的技术具有完整性、准确性、有效性,能够达到合同规定目标。)

3)副词和形容词转换

1)如合同一方实质性违反本合同或其项下的陈述与保证,另一方可终止合同,并向违约方提出索赔。(If either party commits any material breach of this Contract or its representations and warranties, the other party may terminate this Contract and file a claim against the breaching party.

2)甲方必须真实、完整地向律师叙述案情、提供证据。在接受委托后,如发现甲方捏造事实、弄虚作假,乙方有权终止代理,依本合同所收费用不予退还。(The statement made and proofs provided by Party A shall be true and complete. Where Party A is founded fabricating fact, Party B is free to terminate this Agreement and retain payment already collected from Party A according to this Agreement.

3Either party shall provide the same care to prevent the other partys Confidential Information from disclosure or unauthorized use thereof as it provides to protect its own similar proprietary information.(合同各方应如同保护自己的类似专有信息一样,谨慎行事,以防披露或擅自使用另一方的机密信息。)分析:“proprietary”意为“专有的,独占的”(privately owned or controlled; proprietary technology),“proprietor”指“所有人、业主、专利权人”(a owner of a business, an invention, etc.

4The China National Offshore Oil Corporation shall have exclusive and overall responsibility for the work of exploiting offshore petroleum resources in the PRC in cooperation with foreign enterprises.(中华人民共和国对外合作开采海洋石油资源的业务,专门由中国海洋石油总公司全面负责。)

5)甲方在此不可撤销地委托乙方,甲方签署货物交接单据后,立即将货物价款直接支付到供货商的账户。(Party A hereby irrevocably authorizes Party B to make a direct payment for the Goods into the account of the supplier immediately after Party A signs the Delivery Note.

4)介词转化为动词

Preference shareholders are entitled to a priority in the assets if the company is wound up.(如果公司被解散,优先股东有优先分得公司资产的权利。)

2. 词义的转换

在一般的情况下做翻译,译者只需按照原文中各个词的词典含义就能准确而地道地把原文翻译成译文。然而,在一些特殊情况下,尽管按照词典含义对等地翻译,但译文还是让人觉得别扭。此时,译者就必须按照译文的表达习惯改变词典含义,用地道的译文用词来表达原文作者的真正含义,这就是词义转换。例如:

1Each Party shall have the right to change its legal or authorized representative and shall promptly notify the other Party of such change and the name, position and nationality of its new legal or authorized representative.(双方有权撤换其各自的法定代表人或授权代表,并应将新法定代表人或授权代表的姓名、职位和国籍及时通知另一方。)分析:原文中的“change”的原意为“变化”,但为了符合中文的表达习惯,将它翻译成“撤换”。

2The Company may establish branch offices inside China and overseas with the consent of the Board and approval from the relevant governmental authorities.(合营公司经董事会决议并经有关政府机关批准可在国内外成立分支机构。) 分析:原文中“consent”原意为“同意”,但为了中文商务语言的表达习惯,在译文中将其翻译为“决议”。

3The purpose of the joint venture shall be to utilize the combined technological, management, operational and marketing strengths of the Parties within the approved scope of business of the Company to achieve good economic results and a return on investment satisfactory to the Parties.(合营公司的宗旨是结合双方在技术、管理、运营及营销方面的优势,在合营公司经批准的经营范围内开展业务,以取得良好的经济效益及令双方满意的投资回报。)分析:原文中“strength”的原意为“实力,力量”,但在译文中,为了符合中文表达习惯的需要,它被翻译为“优势”。

3. 句型的转换

肯定句和否定句的转换。

由于英语和汉语表达思想、遣词造句的方式不同,在翻译时应按照中文的习惯用法决定是否改变表现方法。最为常用的方式是将英语中某些肯定和否定形式的句子在汉译时作句式转换处理。例如:

1They were very few, fewer than at the last meeting of the board of directors. The chairman didnt say much at the meeting, but every word was to the point.(他们没有几个人到会,比董事会上次到会的人还要少。董事长在会上说话不多,但每句话都很中肯。)

2It is not rarely that they collect the feedback information of their products directly from the market from all angles.(他们常常从各种角度收集市场直接反馈的产品信息。)

4. 语态的转换

英语惯用被动语态,而汉语则多用主动语态。因此,英译汉时宜按照汉语的表达习惯作改变,这样的改变常见于那些以人的动作和活动为主语、而动作的执行者已被表明或暗示的句子里。例如:

1Everything possible has been done to save their enterprise and to carry on the entire reform of their management and control.(他们已采取了一切可能的措施,以便挽救他们的企业,并对他们的经营管理进行彻底的改革。)

2Confidential Information must be kept by the receiving Party in a secure place with access only to both Parties employees or agents.(机密信息的接受方必须将其存放在安全地方,仅限合同双方雇员、代理人知晓。)

3This Contract shall be signed in four 4 counterparts and all such counterparts shall be deemed to constitute one and the same instrument.(本合同签署本一式四份,视为共同构成同一份文件。)

4)如果一方因不可抗力而无法履行其合同义务,该义务的履行时间应延长,延长的时间应当与该不可抗力事件导致的延误时间相等。(Where one Party is prevented from performing any of its contractual obligations due to an event of force majeure, the time for performing such obligations shall be extended by a period equal to the period of delay caused by such event of force majeure.

5)三名仲裁员应在收到中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会仲裁员名册后30天内,按照其仲裁规则规定的程序选定。(The three arbitrators shall be selected within thirty 30 days after receiving the arbitrators list delivered by CIETAC pursuant to procedures prescribed by CIETACs arbitration rules.


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