英语阅读我不怕——深入阐述理解生词

2017-01-06 09:02:02   Tag��

英语学习方法

 

英语阅读

 
   ��Ҫ����(0)

英语阅读我不怕——深入阐述理解生词 :有的时候,我们用定义法并不能很好地理解生词的含义,或者是作者并没有通过直接解释来让我们了解生词的含义。但作者为了让我们了解文章表达的意思,肯定会在其他地方对这个生词进行一番解释。这一节,我们就说一说怎样利用作者的深入阐述来理解生词的含义。

深入阐述理解生词

有的时候,我们用定义法并不能很好地理解生词的含义,或者是作者并没有通过直接解释来让我们了解生词的含义。但作者为了让我们了解文章表达的意思,肯定会在其他地方对这个生词进行一番解释。这一节,我们就说一说怎样利用作者的深入阐述来理解生词的含义。

深入阐述的类型有很多,我们分类进行介绍。

       位语

同位语作为插入语放在主语和谓语动词中间,解释主语的含义。

A taboo, a social custom against a subject or activity, is easy to make people embarrassing or offensive.

Taboo是一个生词,但是它后面的逗号对其含义进行了说明,就是a social custom against a subject or activity (抵触某个话题或活动的社会习俗)。由此,我们可以推测出taboo的意思是“禁忌”。

②标点符号

为了强调或者解释某一事物,作者常常会在括号内或者破折号后对名词进行解释。

I set springe—a trap—to catch those annoying birds.

springe是一个生词,我们不知道是什么意思,但通过破折号后面的trap,我们很轻松地就知道了springe是“圈套;陷阱”的意思。

③定语从句

生词做先行词的定语从句很好地解释了生词的含义。但有的时候,我们无论如何也无法理解生词的含义,一般情况下这样的生词是专有名词。但是我们利用解释已经知道了生词所要表达的事物的具体特征,有助于我们理解文章,这样就足够了。

Supernova is a massive star which undergoes gravitational collapse.

这个句子中的主语supernova是什么意思?我们从后面的解释中也无法得出准确的含义。我们只能知道,它是一个“经过引力收缩的巨大的恒星”。虽然不知道准确含义,但我们知道了事物的特征,这就足够理解文章大意了。

④举例解释

作者在对某一事物进行解释时(往往是概念性的名词),一般会举出例子来帮助读者理解提出的概念。我们可以通过通俗易懂的例子来归纳出生词的含义。举例子时一般会用到such asfor instance,【For example】,e.g.等提示词。

The media, such as television, radio, newspaper and magazines, are essential in our daily life.

media后面的“电视、收音机、报纸和杂志”等例子可知,media的意思是“媒体”。

 

【超强实践】

推测出生词的含义。

1

Whatever you may think of her party-planning, book-writing skills, one thing that's not up for debate is Pippa Middleton's attractiveness.

The girl is pretty—and has a great body, to boot.

So, how does she do it?An exclusive quinoa-and-kale diet?

Hours of exercise? Um, not so much, she reveals.

In a column written for Waitrose Weekend magazine, Pippa says it's all about portion control and being sensible.And, before you ask, yes, you can still have wine, chips and chocolate.Sounds perfect!

I've never done (protein-based diet) Dukan, attempted Atkins or exercised religiously seven days a week, but I do believe in making healthy choices—keeping refinedcarbssuch as white bread and pasta to a minimum, and sticking to sensible portion sizes.I grew up with the belief that good health is about moderation in all things, so I'll be celebrating healthy living through exercise, a balanced diet and a little of the naughty stuff sprinkled in.I'm talking chocolate, crisps and the occasional glass of wine.I know that if I fit in at least three, ideally five, sessions of exercise a week, it boosts my mood and energy, and helps me sleep and digest better.”

2

A gentleman who had traveled in Europe, relates that he one day visited the hospital of Berlin, where he saw a man whoseexteriorwas very striking.His figure, tall and commanding, was bending with age, but more with sorrow; the few scattered hairs which remained on his temples were white almost as the driven snow, and the deepest melancholy was depicted in his countenance.

On inquiring who he was and what brought him there, he started, as, if from sleep, and, after looking around him, began with slow and measured steps to stride the hall, repeating in a low but audible voice, “Once one is two; once one is two.”

Now and then he would stop, and remain with his arms folded on his breast as if in contemplation, for some minutes; then again resuming his walk, he continued to repeat, “Once one is two; once one is two.” His story, as our traveler understood it, is as follows:

Conrad Lange, collector of the revenues of the city of Berlin, had long been known as a man whom nothing could divert from the paths of honesty.Scrupulously exact in an his dealings, and assiduous in the discharge of all his duties, he had acquired the good will and esteem of all who knew him, and the confidence of the minister of finance, whose duty it is to inspect the accounts of all officers connected with the revenue.

On casting up his accounts at the close of a particular year, he found a deficit of ten thousand ducats.Alarmed at this discovery, he went to the minister, presented his accounts, and informed him that he did not know how it had arisen, and that he had been robbed by some person bent on his ruin.

The minister received his accounts, but thinking it a duty to secure a person who might probably be a defaulter he caused him to be arrested, and put his accounts into the hands of one of his secretaries for inspection, who returned them the day after with the information that the deficiency arose from a miscalculation; that in multiplying, Mr.Lange had said, once one is two, instead of once one is one.

The poor man was immediately released from confinement, his accounts returned, and the mistake pointed out.During his imprisonment, which lasted two days, he had neither eaten, drunk, nor taken any repose; and when he appeared, his countenance was as pale as death.On receiving his accounts, he was a long time silent;then suddenly awaking, as if from a trance, he repeated, “Once one is two.”

He appeared to be entirely insensible of his situation; would neither eat nor drink, unless solicited; and took notice of nothing that passed around him.While repeating his accustomed phrase, if anyone corrected him by saying, “Once one is one,” his attention was arrested for a moment, and he said, “Ah, right, once one is one;” and then resuming his walk, he continued to repeat, “Once one is two.”He died shortly after the traveler left Berlin.

This affecting story, whether true or untrue, obviously abounds with lessons of instruction.Alas! how easily is the human mind thrown off its balance; especially when it is stayed on this world only, and has no experimental knowledge of the meaning of the injunction of Scripture, to cast all our cares upon Him who careth for us, and who heareth even the young ravens when they cry.

3

Adam Levine, the lead singer of Maroon 5, was last year named People's Sexiest Man Alive thanks to his square jaw, high cheekbones and thin lips.

However, new researcher has shown that in fact, many women prefer a more effeminate look.

Researchers say that particularly in rural areas, women actually find feminine features more attractive.

The study from Brunel University in the UK, led by psychologist Isabel Scott, found that where you live can influence your tastes.

Researchers showed participants three pictures—all were of the same man, but altered so that in one he had extremely masculine characteristics, in another he had very feminine ones, and in the last, neutral features.

The men were from one of five ethnic groups: European, East Asian, South Asian,African Caribbean, and South American.

A total of 962 subjects, who lived in both urban and rural areas in Canada, the United Kingdom, Ecuador, Russia and China, among other places, saw the pictures.

They were asked to place each shot in one of three categories: 1 most attractive for a long-term relationship, 2 most attractive for a short-term one, and 3 least attractive face.

In urban areas, women generally picked the more masculine men as most attractive for both long- and short-term relationships, but in rural areas, there was no such standard.

For example, in South America, women preferred feminine-looking men,'Scott told Time.

It was quite unexpected.

Specifically, in Ecuador and Nicaragua, women in the countries' Shuar and Miskitu indigenous populations respectively preferred feminine-looking men, researchers said.

The study, Scott said, shows thatanthropologistsmight be wrong—our preference for manly men might not be based our evolutionary history.If it were it should hold true in rural societies that are more similar to how we lived back in the caveman era.

These are clearly modern preferences,she said.

Previously researchers have said the square jaw was most desirable.

Helen Fisher, an anthropologist at Rutgers University who studies love and attraction, said at the time that Levine has ‘stereotypically masculine features,' including a square jaw, high cheekbones, and thin lips—all of which women are drawn to.

Look at that jaw, it really juts out on the side,' she said.‘His brow ridges are such that he could probably stand in the shower and keephis eyes open.'

New research, however, suggests that women may not like manly men as much scientists once thought.In fact, the study shows, many ladies might prefer the opposite: guys with softer, more feminine facial features.

The study was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

It is a popular assumption that certain perceptions—【For example, that highly feminine women are attractive, or that masculine men are aggressivereflect evolutionary processes operating within ancestral human populations.'

However, observations of these perceptions have mostly come from modern, urban populations.'

This study presents data on cross-cultural perceptions of facial masculinity and femininity.In contrast to expectations,we find that in less developed environments, typical “Western” perceptions are attenuated or even reversed, suggesting that Western perceptions may be relatively novel.

We speculate that novel environments, which expose individuals to large numbers of unfamiliar faces,may provide novel opportunities—and motives—to discern subtle relationships between facial appearance and other traits.'

4

Most clothes come with simple washing instructions—which I'd hazard most men interpret as “pick quickest setting, use same for everything, hope for best”.Raw denim on the other hand comes with much starker diktats.For anyone who's invested in (forked outfor) a pair of raw jeans, you're confronted with a whole new attitude to washing—basically, don't do it.

Take this from Hiut Denim:“Raw denim is best given a good six months before washing.The longer you can leave it, the better your jeans will look.”

Or this advice from fellow British jeans brand Albam:“There are many thoughts on how to care for your jeans, some say, ‘Wear them ever, wash them never,' others simply wash them as much as they can.Whichever method you prefer, we have found that wearing them as often as possible gives the best fades.”

Sweden's Nudie Jeans offer this:“Compared to a new pair of dry jeans, the smell of a well-worn pair just before wash is a completely different matter.It's a smell that could most probably raise the dead.But it's most definitely the smell of a winner.

FEELING DIRTY? Rub with a damp cloth if you need to remove stains.

If you need to get rid of a smell, hang your jeans outside a sunny and windy day.Additionally, you can turn them inside out, shaking them well.

STILL FEELING DIRTY? Then it might be about time to wash your jeans.”

5

The Antarctic ozone hole, which was expected to reduce in size swiftly when manmade chlorine emissions were outlawed 27 years ago, is stubbornly remaining the size of North America, new data from Nasa suggests.

The hole in the thin layer of gas, which helps shield life on Earth from potentially harmful ultraviolet solar radiation that can cause skin cancers, grows and contracts throughout the year but reached its maximum extent on 9 September when monitors at the south pole showed it to cover 24.1m square km (9.3m sq miles).This is about 9% below the record maximum in 2000 but almost the same as in 2010, 2012 and 2013.

But scientists remain unsure why the hole has not reduced more since the Montreal Protocol agreement was signed by countries in 1987.

This global treaty is considered one of the world's most successful,having been pushed through in record time.It bans the use of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), substances that were widely-used in household and industrial products such as refrigerators, spray cans, insulation foam and fire suppressants.

The ozone hole area is smaller than what we saw in the late-1990s and early 2000s, and we know that chlorine levels are decreasing.However, we are still uncertain about whether a long-term Antarctic stratospheric temperature warming might be reducing this ozone depletion,” said Paul A Newman, chief scientist for atmospheres at Nasa's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

It's broadly on track to reduce in size,” said Dr Jonathan Shanklin, emeritus professor at the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, one of the three scientists who discovered the hole in the 1980s.“We knew it was always going to take a long time to recover because the CFCs were long-lived.”

He said the reason why it was not healing more quickly was because the interaction between climate change and the ozone hole was complex.“The ozone hole itself is affecting the climate of Antarctica and Australia, and is being affected by it.It is changing the wind systems.”

As the ozone hole gradually fills in, so we can expect, over the next 50 or so years, the effects of climate change to increase.We will see different patterns of climate change”.

Last month the UN Environment Programme (Unep) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) said there were “positive indications” that the ozone layer was on track to recovery, but warned it might take a further 35 years or more to recover to 1980 levels.They said that without the Montreal Protocol atmospheric levels of ozone depleting substances could have increased tenfold by 2050.


[ ������能飞英语网    �༭��能飞英语网 ]
0
0
QQ书签  百度搜藏  Google书签  新浪ViVi书签
雅虎收藏  分享到校内人人网  收藏到豆瓣  收藏到开心网
�ܷ�Ӣ����ӭ�����ۣ������������Է���

媒体报道