有时作者为了能够更顺利地表达出自己的观点或思想，会在一些较为生僻的概念之后附加定义或释义进行解释。这种形式非常容易辨别，利用定义法可以非常方便地猜出生词的含义。定义语句中一般使用be动词，mean，refer to，define，be considered as，be known as，be called，namely等单词做谓语动词。
① Ecology is the study of the relationships between plants, animals, human and the environment.
Zoology means the scientific study of animals.
③refer to 常翻译为“指的是……”
Botany refers to the scientific study of plants.
They defined the aesthetics as a branch of philosophy studying the idea of beauty.
Potato is called murphy in some regions.
murphy 到底是什么，我们不得而知，但通过be called我们就能了解到它是“potato的一种方言”，那肯定也就是“土豆”的意思了。
I find he has aptitude for publishing, namely, he is capable to do the work.
Malignantmesotheliomais a rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining that covers many of the body's internal organs, the mesothelium.It is usually caused by exposure to asbestos which is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties.
Mesothelioma's most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart), or the tunica vaginalis (a sac that surrounds the testis).
Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.It has also been suggested that washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos can put a person at risk for developing mesothelioma.Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between me sothelioma and smoking, but smoking greatly increases the risk of other asbestos-induced cancers.
The symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to pleural effusion (fluid between the lung and the chest wall) or chest wall pain, and general symptoms such as weight loss.The diagnosis may be suspected with chest X-ray and CT (X-ray computed tomography) scan, and is confirmed with a biopsy (tissue sample) and microscopic examination.A thoracoscopy (inserting a tube with a camera into the chest) can be used to take biopsies.It allows the introduction of substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space (called pleurodesis), which prevents more fluid from accumulating and pressing on the lung.Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, the disease carries a poor prognosis.Research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is ongoing.
The termDemocracycomes from the Greek words dêmos (people) and Kratos (power).In its literal meaning, democracy means the “rule of the people”.In fact it is a form of government in which all eligible people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives.Democracy as a political systems existed in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.
Equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times.These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes.【For example】, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.
There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more freedom for their citizens than others.However, if any democracy is not structured so as to prohibit the government from excluding the people from the legislative process, or any branch of government from altering the separation of powers in its own favor, then a branch of the system can accumulate too much power and destroy the democracy.Separation of powers is a model of governance under which the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches.The normal division of branches is into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary.
Whale oil, also referred to astrain oil, is oil produced from whales.It was a major food of the aboriginal peoples of the Pacific northwest, such as the Nootka but it was also used for many purposes.
The first principal use of whale oil was as an illuminant in lamps,
Whale oil was also used as candle wax，
It was used for producing soap.
Whale oil later came to be used in oiling wools for combing and other uses.
It was used to make margarine.
It was the basis of very effective protective paint for steel，
Whale oil also had many uses in battle as a weapon, it was used by various military forces all throughout the 1700s and even into the 1800s.
As it has been noted above whale oil was the first of any animal or mineral oil to achieve commercial viability.