英语阅读我不怕——定义理解生词

2017-01-05 08:13:13   Tag��

英语学习方法

 

英语阅读

 
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英语阅读我不怕——定义理解生词:有时作者为了能够更顺利地表达出自己的观点或思想,会在一些较为生僻的概念之后附加定义或释义进行解释。这种形式非常容易辨别,利用定义法可以非常方便地猜出生词的含义。定义语句中一般使用be动词

利用其他相关成分, 快速理解生词含义

我们知道,平时学习的词汇含义是最常见的,可是我们在阅读过程中会经常碰到一些生词,这对我们理解文章造成了很大的障碍。为了提高阅读理解能力,我们需要训练自己的语境反应能力和重建能力。语境分为语言性语境和非语言性语境。

我们在阅读过程中遇到生词时,不要着急查字典,而是要根据上下文的线索来推测其含义。为什么不查字典呢?因为查字典会中断我们的阅读思维,使我们忘记前面阅读过的内容,致使文章支离破碎,还有一点就是,它会让我们迷失在一个单词的众多含义里不知所措。我想,我们都愿意阅读流畅,而不是困在原地犯难吧?那么,我们最好是应用上下文给出的线索来推测生词的含义。记住哦,这里的推测是一种科学的判断,需要积极主动地思考,而不是主观臆断。

通常,我们需要根据文章的语言性语境和非语言性语境来推测生词含义。

01 定义理解生词

有时作者为了能够更顺利地表达出自己的观点或思想,会在一些较为生僻的概念之后附加定义或释义进行解释。这种形式非常容易辨别,利用定义法可以非常方便地猜出生词的含义。定义语句中一般使用be动词meanrefer todefinebe considered asbe known asbe callednamely等单词做谓语动词。

Ecology is the study of the relationships between plants, animals, human and the environment.

句中的ecology大家可能不熟悉,是一个生词,但是在is之后给出的内容对这一名词进行了解释。我们可以通过句子中的表语来大致识别这个陌生的单词。通过后面对这个词语的解释,我们知道它是一门学科,是一门研究植物、动物、人类与环境之间关系的学科,也就是“生态学”。

mean后面引出含义,只要单词后面出现mean,我们就可以通过mean后面的内容来了解生词了。

Zoology means the scientific study of animals.

动物学指的是对动物的科学研究。

refer to 常翻译为“指的是……”

Botany refers to the scientific study of plants.

植物学指的是研究植物的一门科学。

define “给……下定义”

They defined the aesthetics as a branch of philosophy studying the idea of beauty.

他们给美学下的定义是研究美的一个哲学分支。

defineas…的意思是“把……解释为……”。as后面的内容用来解释define后面的名词。aesthetics对于我们来说十分陌生,但是通过as后面的解释,我们能很快知道这个单词是指的“美学”。

这句话的意思是:他们把“美学”解释为“研究美的理念的学问,是哲学的一个分支”。

be called

Potato is called murphy in some regions.

有些地区管土豆叫马铃薯。

murphy 到底是什么,我们不得而知,但通过be called我们就能了解到它是“potato的一种方言”,那肯定也就是“土豆”的意思了。

 

namely

I find he has aptitude for publishing, namely, he is capable to do the work.

我发现他在出版方面有天分,也就是说,他能够胜任这份工作。

aptitude对你来说有些陌生?不要紧,看看namely之后的内容说得多么明了,读完之后你肯定就猜出来aptitude的含义了,没错,那就是“才能”!

【超强实践】

推测出生词的含义。

1

Malignantmesotheliomais a rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining that covers many of the body's internal organs, the mesothelium.It is usually caused by exposure to asbestos which is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties.

Mesothelioma's most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart), or the tunica vaginalis (a sac that surrounds the testis).

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.It has also been suggested that washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos can put a person at risk for developing mesothelioma.Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between me sothelioma and smoking, but smoking greatly increases the risk of other asbestos-induced cancers.

The symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to pleural effusion (fluid between the lung and the chest wall) or chest wall pain, and general symptoms such as weight loss.The diagnosis may be suspected with chest X-ray and CT (X-ray computed tomography) scan, and is confirmed with a biopsy (tissue sample) and microscopic examination.A thoracoscopy (inserting a tube with a camera into the chest) can be used to take biopsies.It allows the introduction of substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space (called pleurodesis), which prevents more fluid from accumulating and pressing on the lung.Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, the disease carries a poor prognosis.Research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is ongoing.

2

The termDemocracycomes from the Greek words dêmos (people) and Kratos (power).In its literal meaning, democracy means the “rule of the people”.In fact it is a form of government in which all eligible people have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives.Democracy as a political systems existed in some Greek city-states, notably Athens following a popular uprising in 508 BC.

Equality and freedom have both been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times.These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes.For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.

There are several varieties of democracy, some of which provide better representation and more freedom for their citizens than others.However, if any democracy is not structured so as to prohibit the government from excluding the people from the legislative process, or any branch of government from altering the separation of powers in its own favor, then a branch of the system can accumulate too much power and destroy the democracy.Separation of powers is a model of governance under which the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches.The normal division of branches is into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary.

3

Whale oil, also referred to astrain oil, is oil produced from whales.It was a major food of the aboriginal peoples of the Pacific northwest, such as the Nootka but it was also used for many purposes.

The first principal use of whale oil was as an illuminant in lamps,

Whale oil was also used as candle wax

It was used for producing soap.

Whale oil later came to be used in oiling wools for combing and other uses.

It was used to make margarine.

It was the basis of very effective protective paint for steel

Whale oil also had many uses in battle as a weapon, it was used by various military forces all throughout the 1700s and even into the 1800s.

As it has been noted above whale oil was the first of any animal or mineral oil to achieve commercial viability.

 


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