托福阅读英语词汇——信号词汇篇

2016-11-24 13:50:50   Tag:

英语单词大全

 

托福英语

 
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托福阅读英语词汇——信号词汇篇:prone[proun]a. 俯卧的;易于做…的;倾向于…的搭配 be prone to 易于…;倾向于…2. If you know the geography well, you must know China has numerous quake- prone areas. 如果你熟悉地理知识,就一定知道中国有许多地区容易地震。

proneprouna. 俯卧的;易于做…的;倾向于…的

搭配 be prone to 易于…;倾向于…

例句 1. In the tropics, the valleys seem to be more favorable because they are less prone to dry out, they have less frost, and they have deeper soils. 在热带地区,山谷似乎是非常有利的地形,因为它们更不容易干涸,结霜较少,土壤也更肥厚。

2. If you know the geography well, you must know China has numerous quake- prone areas. 如果你熟悉地理知识,就一定知道中国有许多地区容易地震。

provepru:vv. 证明;结果是,原来是

例句 In 1947 Norwegian adventurer Thor Heyerdahl drifted on a balsa-log raft westward with the winds and currents across the Pacific from South America to prove his theory that Pacific islanders were Native Americans (also called American Indians). 1947年挪威冒险家托尔·海尔达尔用巴尔沙木排随着风和气流漂流,从南美洲向西横跨大西洋来证明他的理论,即太平洋岛民是美洲原住民(也称为印第安人)。

要点 在考查论证某一观点的文章中,作者通常会用prove来证明其观点的正确性。此外,在这样的文章中,还经常会用conclude来总结之前论述的观点,从而进一步证明。

purely'pjurliad. 纯粹地,完全地

例句 1. Particular combinations of flora and fauna do not generally come about purely by chance. 特定的动植物组合的出现通常并非纯属偶然。

2. Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem to be purely decorative today, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. 正如希腊罐子上的画的设计也许在如今看来只是纯粹的装饰,然而实际上那时候它们是被精心设计出来的,意图很明确,这与中国的罐子有异曲同工之处。

purpose'p?:rp?sn. 目的,意图;用途

例句 The lack of surface water in both the north and the south was probably because of the fact that most of it was quickly used up for agricultural purposes. 南北方都缺乏地表水也许是因为大部分地表水被作为农业用水很快用完了。

要点 在阅读文章中常常使用purpose来表达作者的意图,比如:What is the author's primary purpose?

rarely'rerliad. 很少;不常

例句 If a customer frequently buys bread, vouchers offering money off for bread is better than for products they rarely buy when it comes to increasing their loyalty to your shop. 想要提高顾客忠诚度,那么对于一位经常买面包的顾客,面包抵价券会比那些他几乎不买的产品的抵价券效果更好。

要点 rarely是“几乎不”的意思,表达的是一种否定的含义,在理解文章内容的时候要特别注意这样的词,用法相似的还有hardlyscarcely等。

reasonably'ri:zn?bliad. 合理地;适度地;相当地

例句 Since the mid-1970s a reasonably stable picture has formed of the organization of Australian rock art. 20世纪70年代中期起,澳大利亚岩石艺术已经形成了一个相当稳定的图画。

要点 reasonably是一个表示程度的副词,用于描述情况还算理想、可以接受,即“尚可”的含义。

relevant'rel?v?nta. 相关的;贴切的

例句 These three explanations seem more promising. One contains physiological changes relevant to memory. 这三个解释似乎更有说服力。其中一个包括与记忆有关的生理变化。

要点 relevant最常用的含义是“相关的”,常和介词to一起连用,意为“和…相关”。

remarkableri'mɑ:rk?bla. 显著的,值得注意的;非凡的

例句 1. Even though the remarkable antiquity of Australia's rock art is noeanings of its images have been widely debated. 尽管非凡的古老的澳大利亚岩石艺术已经形成,它的图像的顺序和意义依旧受到争议。

2. Thanks to new environmental and archaeological discoveries, now we are aware of something about the remarkable change in local life. 由于有了新的环境和考古学的发现,我们现在了解了当地生活的一些显著的变化。

同义 extraordinarya. 非凡的)

派生 remarkablyad. 显著地)

要点 remarkable通常被用于修饰重要信息,比如,当看到The energy from these remarkable engines is, however, not entirely free. 可知上文提到的engines十分关键。

repetition?rep?'ti?nn. 重复,反复

例句 Repetition of the same atomic masses for elements in different groups appeared. 在不同的组中,相同原子质量的元素出现了重复。

派生 repetitivea. 重复的,反复性的)

repetitiveri'pet?tiva. 重复的,反复性的

例句 For example, if a uniformly moving pattern of some sort is passed across the visual field of a neonate, repetitive following movements of the eye occur. 例如,如果某种始终不变的运动模式穿过婴儿的视野,他们的眼睛就会屡屡注意这些动作。

represent?repri'zentv. 表现;描绘;象征;代表

例句 1. Lightning that strikes the ground is the most likely to be destructive, so even though it represents only 20 percent of all lightning, it has got a lot of scientific attention. 打到地上的闪电很可能具有破坏性,所以即使它仅代表20%的闪电,它仍得到科学领域的许多关注。

2. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations. 演员可能会在典礼上或是相关的庆典上身着华装和面具演绎神话中的人物或是超自然力量。

同义 manifestv. 表现);portrayv. 描绘)

要点 可以表示“代表”的含义的词组还有on behalf ofin the person of。在阅读中represent常用的含义也是“代表”。

reverseri'v?:rsv. 使反转;彻底转变;撤销

例句 1. Desertification is extremely hard to reverse unless the population is reduced in the vast areas affected. 沙漠化状况很难得到扭转,除非广大受影响地区的人口得以削减。

2. Roughly every six hours the river reverses direction. 大约每6个小时河流就会转向。

要点 reverse在文中常常和介词in一起出现,表示“相反”。在文章中出现这个短语的时候,作者常常会列出和原有的内容相反的论点,要格外留意。

seemingly'si:mi?liad. 表面上,看上去

例句 Very young children are easily influenced by ads, while slightly older children are more readily misled by seemingly rational claims such asthe best. 非常小的孩子特别容易受到广告的影响,而稍微大点儿的孩子更容易被看似合理的宣传所误导,例如“最好的”。

sensible'sens?bla. 明显的;明智的;切合实际的

例句 On the contrary, the most sensible thing for neighbours is to combine efforts to produce as much food as possible. 反之,邻里间最明智的事情就是联合起来努力生产尽可能多的粮食。

同义 perceptiblea. 明显的)

sequence'si:kw?nsn. 连续;先后,顺序

例句 The sequence of events had influenced the probability of the risk. 这一系列的事件已经影响了风险发生的概率。

要点 sequence也可以表示前后顺序和因果关系,在阅读中最常用的是表示“顺序”的含义。

severesi'vira. 严重的;剧烈的;不加装饰的

例句 1. Changes in climate before the Cretaceous period caused severe fluctuations in sea level, resulting in the extinction of the dinosaurs. 白垩纪前的气候变化引起海平面剧烈波动,导致了恐龙的灭亡。

2. If the irritation is severe enough, a sleeping person will wake up, clear the airway, then resume breathing and likely return to sleep. 如果刺激足够剧烈,一个沉浸在睡梦中的人就会醒来,清清呼吸道,然后重新调整呼吸,并可能再次入睡。

要点 severe在文中常用的含义是“严重的”,也可用serious来替代。

simultaneous?saiml'teini?sa. 同时的;同步的

例句 1. Some hypotheses failed to account for simultaneous extinctions on land and in the seas. 一些假设不能对同时发生在大陆和海上的灭亡事件作出解释。

2. These ponderous machines reaped the grain, threshed it, and bagged it, all in one simultaneous operation. 这些沉重的机器收割谷子,打谷脱粒然后装袋,所有的操作都在同一时间完成。

同义 synchronousa. 同时的)

派生 simultaneouslyad. 同时地)

要点 simultaneous及其副词形式simultaneously经常被用于表示同一时期发生的事情,等于at the same time

slightslaita. 轻微的,微弱的 n./v. 轻视

例句 1. The researchers detect some changes in skin conductance following yawning, indicating a slight increase in physiological activity. 研究人员检测到在打哈欠之后,皮肤电传导发生了一些变化,这说明生理活动有轻微的增强。

2. Life resembles in only a slight degree the popular image of it. 人生只在很小程度上与其通俗的表象相似。

派生 slightlyad. 轻微地)

要点 在阅读文章中,slight通常用于表示某事物的程度;如果要表示“严重的”,则通常使用serious或者severe

straightstreita. 直的;直率的;正直的 ad. 直接地;立即;坦率地

例句 Most of the Yucatan Peninsula consists of karst, a porous sponge-like limestone terrain where rain runs straight into the ground and where little or no surface water remains available. 尤卡坦半岛大部分是由喀斯特地形构成的,这是一种像海绵似的很能渗水的石灰岩地形,在这里雨水直接渗入地面,只有一点或者几乎没有地表水存在。

subsequent's?bsikw?nta. 随后的;并发的

例句 1. In fact, subsequent work has shown that in a periodic table, elements should not be ordered strictly by atomic mass. 事实上,后续的工作已经表明在周期表上,元素不应该严格按原子质量排序。

2. Desertification is formed primarily through the loss of stabilizing natural vegetation and the subsequent accelerated erosion of the soil by wind and water. 荒漠化主要是由于起到稳定作用的自然植被的减少以及由风和水引起的土壤加速侵蚀而形成的。

同义 consequenta. 作为结果的);successivea. 连续的)

派生 subsequentlyad. 后来,随后)

要点 subsequent的副词形式subsequently通常表示某一事件带来的后果,比如:The airline will get its first aircraft from Taiwan Airlines, but it may subsequently procure its own planes independently. 这家航空公司将从台湾航空那里得到它的第一架飞机,但随后它或许会独立制造自己的飞机。

suggests?'?estv. 建议;暗示;表明

例句 These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have been required to deposit such an amount of Ir in the boundary clay. 这些计算结果显示,要让界线黏土中沉淀的铱元素达到这一含量,需要大约100万年。

要点 suggest除了有“提议,建议”的含义外,在托福阅读中通常还考查“暗示”这一含义。

superiorsju:'pi?ri?ra. 较高的;卓越的 n. 上级

例句 1. European producers believed that silent films with music accompaniment were aesthetically superior to sound films. 欧洲制片人相信伴随着音乐的默片在审美角度上是优于有声电影的。

2. Natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones. 天然维生素优于合成维生素。

派生 superiorityn. 优越,优势)

要点 superior用于比较两种不同事物之间的优劣,通常形容作者赞成或者支持的事物,因此需要注意。

tendtendv. 趋于;照料

搭配 tend to do sth. 倾向做…

例句 1. As the snow is deeper and lasts longer in the valleys, trees tend to attain greater heights on the ridges, although they are more exposed to high-velocity winds and poor, thin soils there. 因为山谷里的雪积得很深、很久,树木往往生长在更高的山脊上,即使它们更容易暴露在强风和贫瘠的土壤中。

2. Children tend to be influenced by their parents' behavior and habits. 孩子们容易受父母的行为和习惯的影响。

同义 inclinev. 趋于)

tendency'tend?nsin. 倾向,趋向

例句 Further observation revealed the tendency of teachers in evaluating historical events. 进一步观察透露了教师评论历史事件时带有倾向。

thorough'θ?:roua. 彻底的;详尽的;仔细周到的

例句 The boss aims to provide a thorough training in all aspects of the work. 老板旨在为这项工作提供各方面的严格训练。

同义 exhaustivea. 彻底的);elaboratea. 详尽的)

要点 thorough表示“彻底的”,通常用它来描述程度之深。

throughout[θru:'autprep. 遍及 ad. 到处;自始至终

例句 Throughout the history of transportation, horses were the primary way of getting from one place to another. 纵观整个交通的历史,马曾是从一个地方去往另一个地方的主要方式。

ultimate'?ltim?ta. 最终的;根本的 n. 终极;最终的事实

搭配 in ultimate 到最后,结果

例句 Her discovery may help to answer some of our questions about the ultimate of the universe. 她的发现可能有助于回答我们关于宇宙根本事实的一些问题。

同义 fundamental, essentiala. 根本的)

要点 ultimate可以表示“最终的;根本的”,因此这个单词修饰的内容通常是文中的重要信息。

virtually'v?:r?u?liad. 实际上,事实上

例句 At the production level, in the United States the conversion was virtually complete by 1930. 就生产水平而言,美国几乎是在1930年之前就完成了转换。

要点 virtuallyin factactually等表达的意思相同,在文章中通常用于陈述事实。

vital'vaitla. 生死攸关的;至关重要的;有活力的

例句 1. The horse has already become the animal of prestige in many regions, though sheep, goats, and cattle could also play a vital part. 即便绵羊、山羊和牛也可以发挥重要作用,但在许多地区马已经成了极负盛名的动物。

2. This temperature gradient may be vital to successful hatching. 温度梯度可能对成功孵化至关重要。

同义 importanta. 重要的)

要点 vital的含义与of the utmost importance相近,表示对重要信息的强调。比如It is vital to know... 这个句型就常用于表示了解某事的重要性。

widely'waidliad. 广泛地;遍布

例句 It's reported that the homeless man without shoes depicted in a widely publicized photo is not really homeless. 报道称那张广为流传的照片中那位没有鞋子的无家可归的男子并不是真的无家可归。


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