托福阅读英语词汇——日常生活篇

2016-11-24 13:47:47   Tag:

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托福阅读英语词汇——日常生活篇:accustom v. 使习惯于搭配 grow accustomed to 习惯于例句 1. Early in the new century, well-to-do Londoners grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even streets. 在新世纪早期,富裕的伦敦人习惯了使用煤气灯为家中甚至是街道照明。

日常生活篇

accustom  v. 使习惯于

搭配 grow accustomed to 习惯于

例句 1. Early in the new century, well-to-do Londoners grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even streets. 在新世纪早期,富裕的伦敦人习惯了使用煤气灯为家中甚至是街道照明。

2. Few of the cultural traditions and rules allow us to deal with the problems existed among people who are accustomed to household autonomy. 几乎没有文化传统和规则让我们能够解决那些发生在习惯于家庭自治的人们当中的问题。

同义 familiarizev. 使习惯于)

adaptation??d?p'tei?nn. 适应,适应性;改制物

例句 1. Ecologists have found ecological problems involving behavior and life-history adaptations more attractive than measuring physical constants. 生态学家发现,关于行为和生存历史适应性的生态问题比测量物理常量更有吸引力。

2. Spartina has physiological adaptations that allow it to grow in the environment where other plants cannot. 大米草属植物有很强的生理适应能力,这使它可以生活在其他生物无法生存的环境里。

adequate'?dikw?ta. 适当的;充足的;胜任的

例句 1. The hardship of finding adequate sources of oil on land has resulted in a greater number of offshore drilling sites. 在陆地上很难找到充足的石油资源,这导致很多近海钻井平台的出现。

2. There is little evidence that people lacked adequate wild food resources. 几乎没有证据能够表明人们缺少足够的野生食物来源。

同义 propera. 适当的)

要点 adequate在托福阅读中用到了词义“充足的”,与sufficient意思相近;并且出现了它的派生词inadequate,意为“不充分的;不适当的”。

adjacent?'?eisnta. 邻近的,毗连的

搭配 adjacent to 邻近的

例句 1. A local animal that goes extinct is quickly replaced by other species from an adjacent region. 当地的一种动物走向灭绝之后,很快就会被来自邻近地区的其他物种代替。

2. The most striking characteristic of the plants of the alpine zone is their low growth form that makes it possible for them to make use of the higher temperatures adjacent to the ground surface immediately. 高山植物最显著的特点是它们以低矮的形态生长,这让这些植物可以及时吸收邻近地面的高温。

同义 nearby, adjoining, borderinga. 邻近的)

afield?'fi:ldad. 在野外;在战场上;在(到)远方

例句 1. Some of the demand for the services and goods was no doubt fulfilled by people drawn from far afield. 这些来自远方的人无疑满足了当地人对服务和商品的一些需求。

2. Vast numbers of seeds fall on the ground beneath the mother plants; and sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. 很多种子会掉落在母体植物下方的土地上,有时它们会被水或风带到很远的地方。

alter'?:lt?rv. 改变

例句 1. No matter how the surroundings around the birds were altered, they went directly to the correct food box. 无论鸟儿周围的环境如何变化,它们都能直接飞到正确的食物盒子处。

2. The effect of super saturation is simply to alter the growth rate. 过饱和的作用只是改变生长速率。

同义 change, varyv. 改变)

arable'?r?bla. 可耕作的 n. 可耕地

例句 1. Some scholars conclude this idea by emphasizing a corresponding need for arable land to feed growing numbers of people. 一些学者通过强调可耕作土地的需求和人口增长应相互协调来总结这一观点。

2. There will be no more arable land if people cut trees in a destructive manner. 如果人类以毁灭性的方式砍伐树木,耕地将不复存在。

arid'?rida. 干旱的;贫瘠的;无趣的

例句 1. Many scientists thought that the impact of longer droughts and higher temperatures could pose a threat for the forests, but others thought it would only affect a minority of trees, perhaps just those in extremely arid regions. 许多科学家认为长期的干旱和高温会对森林构成威胁,但是其他人则认为这只会影响一小部分的树木,也许只是那些生长在极其干旱的地方的树木。

2. Grasses are the dominant type of natural vegetation in semi-arid lands. 禾本科植物在半干旱的土壤中是主要自然植被。

3. Surprisingly, the arid lands contain some of the world's largest river systems. 令人惊奇的是,干旱的地区拥有一些世界上最大的河系。

同义 barrena. 贫瘠的)

要点 托福阅读中多用到arid“干旱的”这个词义,如arid zone“干旱带”,arid climate“干旱气候”,可与dry替换使用。

barebera. 赤裸的;无遮盖的;勉强的 v. 露出

例句 1. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings around them. 画作留在光秃秃的墙上,周围没有任何背景和环境装饰。

2. In a very short time, angiosperms would fill many areas that had been bare. 在一段很短的时间里,被子植物就会覆盖许多原本光秃的土地。

同义 naked, balda. 赤裸的)

barren'b?r?na. 贫瘠的;不结果实的;不生育的

例句 1. The fertile soils of the West drew farmers from regions with barren soils in America. 在美国,西部肥沃的土地吸引了来自土壤贫瘠地区的农民。

2. The region also permitted armed predators to prowl in the barren surroundings. 这一地区使武装的捕食者能够埋伏在周围的荒地里。

3. Dubai, which was merely a barren desert land four decades ago, was at the height of an unparalleled economic boom now. 四十年前还是一块贫瘠沙漠的迪拜如今已经处在空前的经济繁荣的鼎盛时期。

同义 infertile, unproductivea. 不生育的)

bendbendv. 俯身;使弯曲 n. 弯;拐角

例句 These figures are shown in appropriate poses, bending or squatting as they are carrying out tasks. 这些人物造型以恰当的动作呈现,比如弯腰和下蹲,仿佛他们正在执行任务。

blockblɑ:kv. 阻塞;阻碍 n. 大块;障碍物

搭配 block to 塞住

例句 1. Architects perfected the semicircular arch made of blocks of stone. 建筑师完善了那座用石块建造的半圆形拱门。

2. To test the idea that people orienting according to the position of the Sun, he blocked the view of the Sun and used mirrors to change its position. 为了验证人们可以根据太阳来确定方向这一观点,他挡住了人们面前的太阳光,并用镜子改变其位置。

3. Stone statues were made of single rectangular blocks of stones. 石像是用一块块矩形的石块制作的。

同义 back up(阻碍)

boredom'b?:rd?mn. 厌烦,令人厌烦的事物

例句 Their yawning seems to have nothing to do with sleepiness or boredom. 他们打哈欠似乎与瞌睡和无聊无关。

brickbrikn. 砖,砖状物 v. 用砖砌

例句 The ancient building materials that are available today are wood, stone and brick. 从古代沿用至今的建筑材料只有木材、石头和砖块。

bypass'baipɑ:sn. 旁道 v. 绕过;置…于不顾

例句 It is unable to bypass the automatic system. 绕过自动电子系统是不可能的。

canalk?'n?ln. 运河;沟渠 v. 开运河

例句 Canal building decreased after the steam locomotive appeared. 蒸汽机出现以后,就很少修建运河了。

cementsi'mentn. 水泥;胶合剂 v. 巩固;使团结

例句 The modern building is made of cement and steel rather than wood. 现代的大楼是用水泥和钢铁建造的,而不是木材。

cereal'siri?ln. 谷物;谷类食物

例句 In this country, wild cereals and nuts can be used to change for exotic objects. 在这个国家,野生谷物和坚果可以用来交换他国的物品。

同义 grainn. 谷物)

chip?ipn. 碎片;芯片;瑕疵 v. 削(或凿)下

搭配 silicon chip 硅片

例句 1. The chips in the painted figures that are suggested to be made by spears thrown at the drawings can be seen as the evidence of the theory. 绘出的图形中的碎片可以看作这一理论的证据,而这些碎片被认为是将茅掷向画作时所产生的。

2. Early settlers used to chip blocks of ice, in order to melt it for drinking water. 早期移民常常凿开冰块,将其融化成饮用水。

同义 integrated circuit(集成电路,芯片);break off[削(或凿)下]

communalk?'mju:nla. 公共的,共享的;社区的

例句 1. The primary reason for moving to America was the social benefits associated with communal life. 移居美国的主要原因是与公共生活相关的社会福利。

2. After several generations of population growth, people packed the landscape in densities so high that communal pueblos may have been a necessary outcome. 经过几代的人口增长,该地区已被高度密集的人口填满,因此社区的出现是一种必然结果。

3. His paintings depict the communal cultural experience of Mexican descended people in the U.S. 他的绘画描写了美籍墨西哥人的社区文化经历。

要点 communal在托福阅读中通常用的是“社区的”这个词义,比如communal villages“社区村落”。

conditionk?n'di?nn. 状况;[常 pl.]环境,形势

搭配 on conditionthat)如果;out of condition 健康不佳

例句 1. Growing conditions throughout the Middle East are generally poor forcing Middle Eastern people to depend on imported food. 整个中东地区的种植条件都很匮乏,这迫使该地区的人们必须依赖进口食品。

2. An animal can hide from predators by choosing the light environment, but it may require moving to different parts of the forest at different times or under different weather conditions. 通过选择不同的光环境,动物可以躲避天敌,但这可能需要在不同时间或者根据气候条件躲避到森林的不同地方来实现。

3. Both animals and plants have different appearances in these various lighting conditions. 在不同的光照环境中,动物和植物都会有不同的外观。

confinek?n'fainv. 限制;禁闭

例句 1. Upper Paleolithic art was not confined to cave paintings. 旧石器时代晚期的艺术不仅局限于洞穴壁画。

2. The other early apartment buildings were confined to the typical New York building lot. 其他早期的公寓楼的分布局限于典型的纽约建筑用地。

同义 restrict, limitv. 限制)

consistk?n'sistv. 在于,存在于;由…组成

搭配 consist of 由…组成在一起;consist in 在于,存在于

例句 1. The first successful plants on Hawaii were probably lichens, which consist of algae and fungi. 第一种在夏威夷成功存活下来的植物或许是地衣,包括藻类和菌类。

2. Ancient Greek philosophers thought the Earth consisted of five elements. 古希腊哲学家认为地球由5种元素构成。

3. A balanced meal consists of five key elements: proteins, carbo-hydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. 平衡的膳食包括5个关键的要素:蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪、维生素和矿物质。

同义 composev. 由…组成,由…构成)

派生 consistenta. 一致的);consistentlyad. 一贯地)

要点 托福阅读中也会经常用到consist的形容词形式consistent“始终如一的,一致的”,以及词组be consistent with“与…一致”。

consumptionk?n's?mp?nn. 消耗(量);消费(量);食用;挥霍

搭配 consumption pattern 消费模式

例句 1. Nowadays, the cinema became a form of mass consumption. 如今,电影成了一种大众消费形式。

2. A large number of products was transported by water to markets in the cities, where the consumption of fruit and vegetables was no longer restricted to the wealthy. 大批的农产品通过水路运送到城市中的市场,水果和蔬菜不再是只有富人才能食用了。

containk?n'teinv. 包含;容纳;控制

例句 1. Research shows that ancient oceans on Mars contained only small amounts of carbon. 调查显示,火星上的远古海洋只含有少量的碳。

2. The earliest Ediacara fossil formation, which contains the oldest known animal fossils, consists exclusively of soft-bodied forms. 最早形成的埃迪卡拉化石包含已知最古老的动物化石,仅包含软体组织形式。

3. A slightly younger fossil formation containing animal remains was found in Russia. 在俄罗斯发现了一个年代稍近的含有动物残骸的化石。

同义 admitv. 容纳);controlv. 控制)

要点 contain这个词在托福阅读中出现的频率非常高,常用“包含”这个词义,相当于include

cover'k?v?rv. 盖,覆盖;范围为,占;掩饰

搭配 cover up 掩盖,掩饰;take cover 隐蔽;under cover 秘密地

例句 1. The proof is wide-ranging because it covers multiple age-groups. 证据很广泛,因为它涵盖了很多年龄组。

2. Most of Earth's history recorded that glaciers did not exist, but at the present time about 10 percent of Earth's land surface is covered by glaciers. 大多数有关地球史的记载表示冰川并不存在,但是目前看来,地球表面有10%的陆地都被冰川覆盖。

3. Research now shows that the parts of the inner continental shelf remain covered with ice. 调查表明部分内部大陆架现在依然有冰雪覆盖。

crackkr?kv.(使)破裂;破坏 n. 裂缝,裂纹

搭配 crack downon...)镇压,严厉打击

例句 1. Large quantities of water may also be stored in lime stones when cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. 当裂缝扩大形成洞穴的时候,大量的水可能被储存于石灰石中。

2. The otter uses a stone to crack mussel shells. 海獭用石头敲碎贝壳。

同义 breakv.(使)破裂];crushv. 压碎);splitn. 裂缝,裂纹)

crampedkr?mpta. 狭窄的;拥挤的

例句 About 350 B.C., a small village settlement of cramped pit dwellings was founded here. 大约公元前350年,一个狭窄的洞穴房屋构成的小村落在这里建成了。

cultivation?k?lti'vei?nn. 耕种;培养,教育

例句 1. The cultivation of crops has expanded into drier regions as the population density is growing. 由于人口密度不断增长,作物的种植开始向干旱地区扩展。

2. Bringing more land under cultivation produced enough food to support population growth. 耕作更多的土地能提供更多的粮食产量,以应对人口增长。

3. After several years of cultivation and harvest, people here led a happy life. 经过多年的劳作,这里的人们过上了幸福生活。

current'k?:r?nta. 现行的;流通的 n. 流;趋势;涌流

搭配 air currents 气流

例句 1. This fact was of great value in helping the national economies find their place in the evolving currents of the international economy. 这个事实在帮助该国经济在不断变化的国际经济趋势中找到自己的位置方面具有很大价值。

2. The islanders were skilled enough to sail against the prevailing winds and currents. 这些岛民的技术足够娴熟,可以逆着风向和洋流航行。

同义 stream n.(液体、气体的)流];tendencyn. 趋势)

要点 current在托福阅读中经常用到“当前的”这个词义,相当于ongoing;还会用到“气流”这个词义,如:currents in the Pacific“太平洋上的气流”。

cushion'ku?nn. 垫子,靠垫 v. 缓冲

搭配 air-cushion vehicle 气垫船

例句 1. Alpine cushion plants have been found growing at an altitude of 6,180 meters. 我们发现高山上的垫状植物生长在6180米海拔之上。

2. The carpet cushioned the fall of the vase. 地毯缓冲了花瓶的坠落。

同义 pillown. 垫子)

damage'd?mi?n. 毁坏,损害;[常 pl.]损害赔偿(金)v. 毁坏,损害

例句 1. Parasitic damage to Australian rabbits was never reversed because the rabbits can not bear the parasites attacks. 寄生虫对澳大利亚兔子种群的损害从来没有改变过,因为兔子无法忍受寄生虫的攻击。

2. Damage to the environment by humans is often much more severe than that by natural events. 人类对环境的破坏通常比自然事件造成的损害更为严重。

3. They have to fix the damage caused by the global economic crisis and ask for a bigger budget and continue with their business. 他们必须弥补在全球经济危机中造成的损失,要求更高的预算并继续他们的业务。

debrisd?'bri:n. 岩屑;废墟,残骸;碎屑,散落的碎片

例句 1. The tremendous energy of slowly moving glaciers finally deposits rock debris into large rock formations. 这座缓慢移动的冰川具有的巨大能量最终使岩石碎块沉积成了巨大的岩石结构。

2. Scientists have warned that satellite failures would become a commonplace since the amount of space debris reaches a tipping point. 科学家已经警告由于太空中的残骸数量已经达到极限,因此卫星发射失败可能会变成一件司空见惯的事情。

3. Debris thrown into the atmosphere by an asteroid collision would presumably contain large amounts of iridium, and at the same time atmospheric currents would carry this material all over the globe. 大气层中行星撞击形成的碎片可能含有大量的铱元素,与此同时,大气的气流会把这些铱带到地球的每个地方。

同义 ruin, remainsn. 废墟,残骸);fragmentn. 碎屑,散落的碎片)

deceivedi'si:vv. 欺骗

例句 We may be deceived by the figure since over 80 percent of the world's freshwater is locked up as ice in glaciers. 我们可能被这个数字欺骗了,因为世界上80%的淡水都是以冰的形式冻结在冰川中的。

depletedi'pli:tv. 使枯竭,耗尽;倒空;消耗

例句 1. Except for being depleted in volatile elements, chondritic meteorites are probably very similar in the matter which makes up planets. 除了缺乏挥发性元素外,球状陨石的组成物质与行星十分相似。

2. The meteorite is depleted in the most volatile elements, like hydrogen and carbon. 这颗陨星耗尽了大部分的挥发性元素,比如氢气和碳。

3. Some plants can bear relatively low levels of certain minerals, but they are of little use for recycling nutrients back into depleted soils. 某些植物能够忍受某些特定矿物质的较低含量,但这些植物几乎无法将营养供给到贫瘠的土壤中循环再用。

同义 exhaustv. 使枯竭,耗尽)

depletiondi'pli:?nn. 削减,消耗

例句 1. The depletion of the ozone layer over the Arctic region has reached an unprecedented level a loss of 40% from the beginning of the winter to late March in 2011. 从冬天开始到2011年三月下旬,南极地区的臭氧层减少了40%——这已达到一个空前的水平。

2. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of coal is a major concern. 在现代农业中,煤炭资源的消耗是最令人担忧的。

3. The black loams of the prairies were tempting to New England farmers working their rock and to southeastern farmers plagued with soil depletion. 大草原提供了诱人的黑色土壤——这对整日与岩石地打交道的新英格兰农民或为土壤贫瘠所困扰的东南部农民来说极具吸引力。

dispersedi'sp?:rsv. 分散,散开;疏散

例句 1. In some cases, owls get food from the seeds that are dispersed in the wind. 在一些情况下,猫头鹰把飘散在风中的种子当做食物。

2. A survey shows that it is difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. 一项调查显示,当人们兜兜转转,分散在大群体中的时候,想要了解一个人是很困难的。

3. The fact that pollinators obtain food from the flowering plants makes the plants have its pollen distributed and seeds dispersed much more efficiently than they would be if they were carried by the wind only. 传粉者从开花植物中获取花粉,这比植物仅依靠风的作用来传播花粉或分散种子的效率更高。

domesticationd??mesti'kei?nn. 驯养;教化

例句 1. Many complicated theories attempt to explain the way of early domestication of animals. 很多复杂的理论试图解释早期驯养动物的方法。

2. The proposed areas of the domestication of African crops lie in a bank in West Africa. 提到的非洲作物驯化的区域位于西非某条河的河畔。

draindreinv.(使)流走,流干;渐渐耗尽

例句 1. Much of the water in a sample of water-saturated sediment will drain from it if the sample is placed in a dry place. 如果将样本放在一个干燥的位置,那么这个渗满水的沉积物样本中大部分的水分都会流失。

2. It is thought the total volume of water in the saturated sample cannot drain away. 饱和样品的总含水量被认为是不可能耗尽的。

3. Endogenous rivers often do not reach the sea but drain into inland basins. 内生河流通常不会流入大海,而是会在内陆盆地中逐渐干涸。

同义 flow away(流走)

drainage'dreini?n. 排水;排水系统,排水装置

例句 Extensive irrigation with poor drainage makes the surface of the soil salty, which reduces water and air absorption. 过度灌溉和排水不畅使土地表层盐化,这导致土壤对水分和空气的吸收有所减少。

electricali'lektrikla. 电的,与电有关的

例句 1. Lightning is a brilliant flash of light created by an electrical discharge from storm clouds. 闪电是暴风云放电产生的一道明亮的闪光。

2. Changes in the electrical pattern of the brain show that the stimulus is getting through to the central nervous system and evoking some form of response. 大脑电波模式的改变显示刺激已通过中枢神经系统,并引发了一些形式的反应。

escapei'skeipn./v. 逃脱;渗出;躲避

例句 1. The theater can be seen as one tool for people to define and understand their world or escape from unpleasant realities. 戏剧可以看作人们定义和理解他们世界的工具,也是逃避不愉快现实的工具。

2. The surface-to-volume ratio of bigger animals is usually lower, that's to say, they have proportionately less surface through which heat can escape. 对于体积较大的动物,其体表面积与体积之比通常较低,也就是说,它们只有较少的体表面积可以散热。

3. After 1815, improved transportation enabled more and more western farmers to escape a self-sufficient lifestyle and enter a national market economy. 1815年之后,更加发达的交通工具使越来越多的西方农民摆脱了自给自足的生活方式,进入了市场经济模式。

exhaustig'z?:stv.(使)非常疲倦;耗尽 n.(机器排出的)废气

搭配 exhaust emission 尾气排放

例句 1. During the period of a shorter drought, if they exhausted their stored food supplies, they would get in deep trouble since growing crops required rain rather than reservoirs. 在短暂的干旱时期,如果他们耗尽了储存的粮食,将使自己陷入严重的困境,因为种植作物更需要的是雨水而不是水库中的水。

2. He returned from the gym, too exhausted to eat dinner. 他从健身房回来后精疲力竭,连饭都懒得吃了。

fertilizer'f?:rt?laiz?rn. 肥料,化肥

例句 They applied more fertilizers to supply more nutrients to plants. 为了给植物提供更多的营养,他们增加了肥料的使用量。

fiber'faib?rn. 纤维;光纤

例句 The rope of the late Ice Age found in the French cave consists of fibers spiraling to the right, proving that it was tressed by a right-handed person. 在法国岩洞里发现的冰河时代晚期的绳子是由向右旋转的纤维制成的,证明它是由右撇子的人拧成的。

派生 fibrousa. 含纤维的)

flatfl?ta. 平坦的;(价格)固定的;单调的

例句 On the flat plains, he saw moraines, that reminded him of the terminal moraines found at the end of valley glaciers in the Alps. 在平坦的平原上,他看到了冰碛石,这让他想起在阿尔卑斯山山谷的冰河尽头发现的终碛。

floatfloutv.(使)漂浮,(使)浮动,(使)飘动

例句 1. Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles and traveled across the bare mountain flanks. 足够轻的孢子可以随着微风飘荡几千公里,飘过荒山的侧峰。

2. Saturn belongs to the outer planets and has a density of only 0.7 that of water, which means it would float in water. 土星属于带外行星,其密度只有水的70%,也就意味着它会漂浮在水上。

3. Some small local canals allow only small rafts of timber to float. 一些本地小的运河只能使小木筏在上面漂浮。

同义 driftv.(使)漂浮]

foodstuff'fu:dst?fn. 食料,食品;饮料

例句 At a time when maintaining low prices was especially important, the Dutch imported grain and other products since they had the demand for other foodstuffs and consumer goods. 当维持低廉价格极其重要的时候,由于对其他食品和生活消费品的需求,荷兰人进口了粮食和其他产品。

forage'f?:ri?n. 草料,饲料 v. 觅食

例句 1. People exploited the landscape intensively, foraging for wild cereal grasses and nuts on hill slopes. 人们仔细搜索这片土地,在山坡上寻找野生谷物作物和坚果。

2. Goats forage across the field in large numbers. 山羊成群结队地在田野上搜寻食物。

同义 feed, foddern. 草料,饲料);rummagev. 搜寻)

freightfreitn. 货运;运费 v. 运送货物;装货于(船等)

例句 1. At first, steamboats were used to transport passengers rather than freight. 轮船最初用于运送乘客而不是货物。

2. The seafood was shipped in refrigerated freight cars. 海鲜是用冷藏货车运输的。

同义 cargon. 货运)

fringefrin?n. 须边,边缘 v. 成为…的边缘

例句 1. The nomadic and daring settlers kept pushing westward beyond the fringes of settlement in search of new homes. 勇敢的游牧者们继续向西前进,越过了居住地的边界以寻找新的家园。

2. The plant has spread rapidly, so mudflats with marshy fringes were changed into extensive salt meadows and the number and kinds of birds and animals living in the marsh was reduced. 植物生长得非常迅速,使沼泽边缘的湿地都变成了广阔的盐土草地,因而生长在湿地中的鸟类和动物的数量和品种都有所减少。

frozen'frouzna. 冻结的

例句 1. There is very little evidence of liquid water on Mars, and there was only frozen water beneath the planet's surface. 几乎没有证据表明火星上存在液态的水,只有火星地表下面存在凝结的水。

2. The mammoths' soft parts, including skin, hair, and viscera were preserved in frozen soil or in the oozing tar of oil seeps. 包括猛犸象的皮肤、毛发、内脏等软组织被保存在了冻土或石油渗透时渗出的焦油中。

要点 该词是动词freeze的过去分词形式,作为形容词表示“冻结的”,除了在托福阅读中常见的frozen soil, frozen ground等搭配以外,frozen food“冷冻食品”这个搭配也很常见。

fuel'fju:?ln. 燃料;刺激因素 v. 给…加燃料;激起;推动

例句 1. Firewood is the major fuel used for cooking and heating in many countries. 在许多国家,柴火是用来做饭和取暖的主要燃料。

2. Although thisatmospheric engineembodied revolutionary principles, it was so slow and wasteful of fuel that it could not be employed outside the coal mines for which it had been designed. 尽管“大气发动机”呈现出革命性的工作原理,但它却很慢,而且浪费燃料,因此无法依照它所设计的初衷在煤矿以外的地方使用。

3. The extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous and the high concentration of Ir found in deposited clay have fueled the development of a new hypothesis. 白垩纪晚期的灭绝和沉积的岩石中发现的高浓度铱元素推动了一个新假说的发展。

要点 fuel在托福考试的阅读文章中,通常以名词形式出现,但fuel也可以用作动词,表示“推动,为…添加动力”,如:fuel the development of a new hypothesis

furnace'f?:rnisn. 火炉,熔炉;暖气锅炉

搭配 blast furnace 鼓风炉

例句 While American iron makers developed the latest furnaces, African iron makers were still using earlier techniques. 当美国的铁匠制造出最新的火炉时,非洲的铁匠们仍在使用早期的技术。

同义 oven, kilnn. 火炉,熔炉)

fusefju:zv. 熔合;熔化 n. 保险丝;导火线

例句 The resulting mass was further heated to fuse the mass into potash. 生成物被进一步加热,以熔合从而生成碳酸钾。

同义 mix, meltv. 熔合);combinev. 合并)

harshhɑ:r?a. 刺耳的;粗糙的;恶劣的

例句 1. The camel's abilities to live in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. 骆驼能在恶劣的沙漠环境中生存,并能承载沉重货物,这样的能力使它们成为一种高效的运输方式。

2. In this case, iron offers less resistance to fire and harsh weather than other materials. 在这种情况下,铁在抵抗火和严酷天气方面不如其他材料。

同义 severea. 恶劣的);raspya. 刺耳的)

herbicide'?:rbisaidn. 除草剂

例句 To control the development of the Spartina, there are various methods, such as burning, flooding, shading plants with black canvas or plastic, smothering the plants with dredged materials or clay, applying herbicide, and mowing repeatedly. 有许多种方法可以控制米草属植物的生长,比如焚烧、水淹、用黑色帆布或塑料布遮挡、用疏浚材料或黏土使其窒息、喷洒除草剂,以及反复修剪等。

hornh?:rnn.(牛、羊等的)角;喇叭;警报器

例句 Because of the natural weapons like horns, hunters avoided deer and reindeer. 因为鹿和驯鹿拥有犄角这一天然武器,因此捕猎者会躲避它们。

同义 trumpetn. 号角;喇叭)

horticulture'h?:rtik?l??rn. 园艺,园艺学

例句 Because the Dutch specialized in dairy farming, industrial crops, and horticulture, the country was more productive than some other regions in Europe. 由于荷兰人专注于乳品业、经济作物种植和园艺,所以这个国家比欧洲其他地区更多产。

household'haushouldn. 家庭,全家人 a. 家庭的;家喻户晓的

搭配 household appliances 家用电器;household word 家喻户晓的词语

例句 1. In the thirteenth century, people in this area went from living in scattered independent households to living in large towns. 13世纪,这一地区的人们开始从分散的独立家庭转变为到更大的镇子上居住。

2. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot afford to accumulate large material surpluses this rule limits the variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households. 如果你一直在迁移,就无法积累大量的剩余材料——这个规则限制了田园家庭间的物质累积。

humidityhju:'mid?tin. 湿度;潮湿

搭配 relative humidity 相对湿度

例句 1. Compared to the normal growing season, high temperatures, low humidity, and different day lengths of the dry season may bring difficulties to some crops. 与正常的生长期相比,干旱期的高温、低湿度、不同长度的白昼会给庄稼生长带来困难。

2. The landscape of the city becomes a heat island readily because of greater water runoff and special climatic conditions such as low relative humidity and increased air turbulence. 由于这个城市较大的径流量和特殊的气候条件,例如较低的相对湿度和逐渐增强的气流, 这里形成了热岛地貌。

3. Living in this area, people have to tolerate the relatively high humidity in summer. 生活在这个地区,人们不得不忍受夏天相对较高的湿度。

husbandry'h?zb?ndrin. 耕种,务农;(对资源的)管理

例句 1. Since the prices of livestock were high, peasants were encouraged to improve their animal husbandry techniques. 因为牲畜的价格很高,所以农民被鼓励提高动物的饲养技巧。

2. People living in this area specialized in livestock husbandry and dairy farming as well as in cultivating industrial crops and fodder crops. 居住在这一地区的人们在牲畜饲养、乳品业以及经济作物和饲料作物的种植方面都很专业。

3. This article introduced an interesting theory about plant husbandry. 这篇文章介绍了一个关于园林管理的有趣理论。

hyper'haip?ra. 亢奋的;高度紧张的;超…的

例句 1. Mines and irrigation ponds can be avoided from becoming contaminated by planting hyper accumulating species in certain areas. 通过在特定地区种植超积累植物品种,可以使矿山和灌溉池塘免受污染。

2. This experiment begins with the planting of plants that are hyper accumulators in this area. 这个实验以在该地区种植超积累植物开始。

illuminatei'lu:mineitv. 照亮;阐明;启迪

例句 1. First, a path that connects the cloud and the ground is formed, then a strong current of electrons follows it from the cloud to the ground, and it is that current that illuminates the path as the lightning we see. 首先有一条将云和地面连接起来的路径形成,然后强电流会沿着这条路径从云层传向地面,我们所看到的闪电就是被电流照亮的这条路径。

2. The light illuminates the scales of the fish. 灯照亮了鱼的鳞片。

派生 illuminationn. 照明)

imitate'imiteitv. 模仿,效仿;仿制

例句 1. According to Aristotle, humans are naturally imitative as we take pleasure in imitating persons, things, and actions and in seeing such imitations. 根据亚里士多德的说法,人类天生喜欢模仿,因为我们会通过模仿他人、事物、行动,并在看到这样的模仿时感到愉悦。

2. The author indicates that almost all the children imitate their parents' behaviors. 作者指出,几乎所有的儿童都会效仿其父母的行为。

3. He had been trained to imitate the artist's style. 他受过训练以模仿这个艺术家的风格。

同义 copyv. 模仿,效仿)

派生 imitationn. 模仿)

impressim'presv. 给…深刻印象,使铭记 n. 印记

例句 Modern attitude to Roman civilization is diversified, ranging from the infinitely impressed to the thoroughly disgusted. 当代对于罗马文明的态度十分多元化,从印象极其深刻,到完全厌恶。

impressiveim'presiva. 给人深刻印象的;感人的

例句 1. This impressive display is clearly visible when the light illuminates the forest floor. 当光照在森林的地面上时,可以清楚地看到这令人印象深刻的景象。

2. Although the size of the aquifer is impressive, the rate of water addition of the region is also affected by the climate. 尽管含水土层大得惊人,但这个地区的蓄水率仍然受气候影响。

3. The destructive power of nuclear weapons is impressive. 核武器的破坏力令人惊叹。

同义 stunninga. 给人深刻印象的)

要点 作者通常会用impressive来描述那些令人印象深刻的事物,起到强调的作用,比如the impressive size of the aquifer,这里impressive用于强调含水土层之大。

includein'klu:dv. 包括,包含;计入

例句 1. Some animals, including large swimming predators and soft-bodied animals, ate detritus or algae. 包括会游泳的肉食动物和软体动物在内的一些动物都会吃碎石和海藻。

2. Many incomplete skeletons were found including a complete hind leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. 许多不完整的骨骸被发现了,其中有一只完整的后腿,其特征是脚上有三个细小脚趾。

3. Luckily, the fossil includes a good portion of its legs that were strong and ended in long feet very much like those of a modern pinniped. 幸运地,化石中有其完整的腿部化石,它的腿长而强壮,末端的脚与现代的鳍脚亚目动物相似。

要点 includecontain都有“包括”的含义,但在阅读时应该注意它们的区别:include强调被包含者只是整体中的一个部分,而contain则着重表达“内含”的意思。

inexpensive?inik'spensiva. 廉价的,不贵重的

例句 1. Because they were able to import inexpensive goods, they had money available to meet the demand for other products. 因为可以进口低价的粮食,因此他们有钱购买其他产品。

2. Although photography made accurate images inexpensive and widely available, it lowered its perceived value in relation to the fine arts. 虽然摄影能让精准的图像变得价格低廉,且能被广为使用,但却降低了它与美术相关的感知价值。

3. Whatever the final answer to the water crisis may be, it is evident that irrigation water will never be the abundant and inexpensive resource even in the agricultural boom years of the mid-twentieth century. 不论对于水资源危机最终的答案是什么,很显然,即使是在20世纪中期农业发展蓬勃的时期,水资源也从来不是充足而廉价的资源。

要点 inexpensive既可以表示某件商品的价格低,也可以指某一事物没有价值。

infantile'inf?ntaila. 幼稚的,孩子气的

例句 1. An explanation for infantile amnesia involves incompatibilities between the ways in which infants encode information and the ways we retrieve it. 婴儿期失忆的一个解释是这与婴儿编码信息的方式与我们检索信息的方式不协调有关。

2. It is evident that through the early infantile activity the preliminary stage of the later trouble may be noticed. 显然,通过早期的婴儿活动,可以在初始阶段就注意到日后的问题。

ingredientin'gri:di?ntn. 成分,要素;(烹调的)原料;(混合物的)组成部分

例句 1. In order to create a machine to replace the horses, the inventors succeeded in combining these ingredients by putting the engine on the wheels and the wheels on the rails. 为了发明一种可以取代马匹的机器,发明者们通过将不同的部分组合起来实现了这一目的——他们把发动机安置在车轮上,并把车轮安置在铁轨上。

2. The weather map became an essential ingredient in the American newspaper. 气象图成为了美国报纸的一个基本要素。

同义 elementn. 成分,要素)

要点 ingredient表示某事物的组成部分或者成分,因此在阅读中,读者应注意相关组成部分与整体的联系。

inhabitin'h?bitv. 居住于,(动物)栖居于;占据

例句 1. Many colorful birds and animals that inhabit the rain forest do not rely on other forms of signaling except the visual. 很多栖息在热带雨林中的颜色鲜艳的鸟类和动物不会依靠除视觉以外的方式来传递信号。

2. The study of the combination of plant species that inhabit a particular area has became a scientific discipline. 对生活在特定地区的植物种类集合的研究已经成为一门科学学科。

3. The archaeological evidence indicates that Native Americans first inhabited this area. 考古学的证据显示,美洲的土著最初在这个区域居住。

inhabitantin'h?bit?ntn. 居民,住户;栖息的动物

例句 The original inhabitants of Australia have grown the interest in the rock art over the last two centuries. 澳大利亚原始居民对岩洞艺术的兴趣已有两个世纪之久了。

inhospitable?inhɑ:'spit?bla. 荒凉的;不好客的;不适居留的

例句 1. Spartina also can pose serious problems, for example turning mudflats into marshes that are inhospitable to many native fish and birds. 米草属植物也能引起严重的问题,比如使泥滩转变成不适合多数当地鱼类和鸟类居住的湿地。

2. The hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago and this is the period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. 这个假设在近年得到越来越多的支持,因为距今1000012500年的体积较大的陆生动物遗骸在阿拉斯加东南部被发现,而大部分科学家以前曾认为这一时期此地是不适宜人类居住的。

要点 inhospitable在阅读文章里常用来描述环境、气候等不适宜居住。例如:This area is inhospitable for humans and animals.

inspirein'spai?rv. 鼓舞,激励;给…以灵感

例句 1. The success of these geologists inspired others to focus on the rock and fossil records found in different parts of the world. 这些地质学家的成功鼓舞了其他人专注于研究在世界各地找到的岩石和化石记录。

2. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals as food. 或许这些画作的灵感来源是对作为食物的动物的需求增加。

3. Thomas Edison's design of the Kinetoscope inspired the invention of large screen projection. 托马斯·爱迪生设计的电影放映机启发了大屏幕投影仪的发明。

同义 stimulatev. 鼓舞,激励)

要点 inspire除了可以表示“创作灵感的激发”以外,如例句所示,在托福阅读考试中,还可以表示“推动…的发展”的含义。

interpretin't?:rpritv. 解释,说明;理解

例句 1. Children may not be able to interpret exaggerated claims made by advertisers, not to say the disclaimers used to offset claims. 儿童也许没法解读广告商们的夸张言论,更不用说那些用于推卸责任的免责声明。

2. The age of the earliest Aboriginal rock art has been established but how to interpret the rock art images is still debated. 早期原始岩石艺术的时代已经确立,然而对于如何解读岩石艺术还存在争议。

3. Sociologists regard primary groups as links between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society's cultural patterns. 社会学家将初级群体看做个人与大社会之间的联系,因为初级群体可以传播、调解并解释社会的文化形式。

interval'int?rvln. 间隔时间;间距;幕间(或工间)休息

搭配 at intervals 不时;相隔一定距离

例句 1. If many species become extinct within a geologically short interval of time, it is called mass extinctions. 如果在较短的地质间隔时期之内有大量物种灭绝,这种现象称作大灭绝。

2. When the elements were ordered by increasing atomic mass, it was found that successive elements belonged to different chemical groups and that the order of the groups in this sequence was fixed and repeated itself at regular intervals. 当化学元素被按照原子质量递增排列时,我们发现连续的化学元素属于不同的主族,这种顺序在一个组中是固定的,并且会定期重复出现。

3. What we know is that as we include longer time intervals, the record shows increasing evidence of small changes in climate between different regions. 我们知道当时间间隔越长的时候,记录会显示更多的证据证明发生在不同地区的微小气候变化。

irrigate'irigeitv. 灌溉;冲洗伤口

例句 1. It is projected that the remaining water can support only 35 to 40 percent of the irrigated acreage by the year 2030. 按计划,到2030年,这些剩余的水只能支持35%~40%的灌溉亩数。

2. Unfortunately, the cost of water obtained through these schemes would increase pumping costs and make the cost of irrigated agricultural products uncompetitive on the national and international markets. 不幸的是,通过这些方案获得水资源的成本会使抽水的成本加大,使得灌溉农产品在国内和国际市场上都不具竞争力。

派生 irrigationn. 灌溉)

laden'leidna. 载满货的;充满的;有精神负担的

例句 1. Heavily laden wagons were widely used in the industrial regions. 在一些工业地区,重型装载火车的使用十分广泛。

2. The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash, that was deposited as the flow slowed down. 海水经常充满了鹅卵石、碎石和沙子,随着涨潮退去而沉积下来,这些都称做冰水沉积。

同义 filleda. 满的)

laneleinn. 小路;行车道;航线

例句 It was a close-knit community that was consisted of rectangular, one-storey mud-brick houses, and narrow lanes, which was finally abandoned about 5000 B.C. 这是一个密集型的社区,由矩形的泥砖平房以及狭窄的道路构成,但它最终在公元前5000年的时候被遗弃了。

同义 表示道路的词还有:path 路径;channel 通道;highway 公路;bypass 旁道。

moisture'm?is??rn. 潮湿,湿气

例句 1. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, and then pass these on in waste products that nourish algae. 菌类从岩石中吸收湿气和矿物盐,并把这些物质通过废物传递,而这些废物可以为海藻提供营养。

2. The presence or absence of moisture is determined by the special qualities and conditions of the urban surface. 湿度的高低由城市地表的特性和状况决定。

3. This moisture is supplied by the passage of an airstream over a water surface. 一阵气流经过水面,带来了湿气。

同义 humidityn. 潮湿)

navigable'n?vig?bla. 可通航的;可驾驶的

例句 1. Before 1815, the only ways to connect to the western farmers who did not live on navigable waterways were dirt roads and mountain trails. 1815年之前,当西方的农民还没有可通航的水道时,只能通过泥土路和山路与他们联系。

2. Europe's maritime tradition had developed in the context of easily navigable seas such as the Mediterranean, the Baltic, and the North Sea not of vast oceans. 欧洲的海事传统是在可以轻松通航的海洋这一背景下发展起来的,比如地中海、波罗的海以及北海,而不是大片的海域。

navigate'n?vigeitv. 航行,横渡;导航

例句 1. He wanted to see whether the Sun affects the birds' ability to navigate toward the box with food. 他想知道太阳能否影响鸟类找到装满食物的盒子的能力。

2. If a homing pigeon navigates with its Sun compass, its bio-clock must be set by cues provided by the daylight and the darkness cycle. 如果信鸽利用自己的太阳罗盘来导航,那么它的生物钟一定是根据白昼黑夜的交替提供的信号而设定的。

3. There is evidence indicating that birds navigate by a wide variety of environmental cues. 有证据表明,鸟儿是通过各种环境信号来导航的。

派生 navigationn. 航行)

navigator'n?vigeit?rn. 领航员;导航仪

例句 An American anthropologist said that the sweet potatoes might just have been brought back by the Polynesian navigators who could have reached the west coast of South America. 一位美国人类学家表示,甘薯有可能是由波利尼西亚的领航员带回来的,他们可能曾经到达过美国南部的西海岸。

network'netw?:rkn. 网络;网状物;广播网,电视网

搭配 transportation network 交通网络;interconnected network 互联网

例句 Among the tribe, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy, where one's word is one's bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network. 在部落中,人与人之间的关系以及对个性的仔细权衡对于商品经济来说至关重要,在这样的经济体中,每个人所说的话就是契约,而且非正式的信任纽带巩固了这一国际贸易网络。

要点 network通常指抽象概念中的网络,比如:trade network“商业网”,transportation network“交通网络”等。

overcome?ouv?r'k?mv. 战胜,克服;压倒

例句 1. Critics pointed out that it would be impossible to overcome the technical difficulties of making earlier sound films. 评论家指出很难克服早期有声电影制作的技术难题。

2. An invention had to be made before the limitations of stone could be overcome and alternative architectural forms could be created. 新的发明必须要在石头的限制被克服并创造出替代的建筑形式之前出现。

3. If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops and are too heavy for surface tension; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films that are too light to overcome the force of surface tension and be firmly held. 如果气孔很大,那么它其中的水就会以水滴的形式存在,这样就会太重而导致表面张力无法承受;但是如果气孔足够小,其中的水就会以薄膜的形式存在,由于重量太轻而无法克服表面张力,这样就会被稳定地承托住。

同义 conquer, defeatv. 战胜)

要点 overcome多指“战胜或克服困难”,尤其是研究或科学技术层面上的困难,比如:overcome the technical difficulties“克服技术难题”。

overshadow?ouv?r'??douv. 给…蒙上阴影;使…不快;使…显得不重要

例句 The booming of recorded sound has overshadowed the rich diversity of technological and aesthetic experiments with the visual images, which were developing simultaneously. 录音的急速发展使带有视觉图像的技术和美学实验的多样性黯然失色,而这些是与录音同时发展的。

overtake?ouv?r'teikv. 追上,超越;突然降临于;超车

例句 1. Clean energy, for example biofuel, may overtake oil as the mainly used fuel in the next century. 在下个世纪,生物燃料这类的清洁能源或将取代石油成为主要燃料。

2. It is proved to be dangerous to overtake on a bend. 在弯道上超车很危险。

overwhelming?ouv?r'welmi?a. 压倒一切的,势不可挡的;巨大的

例句 The overwhelming evidence of anthropology, linguistics, and archaeology shows that the Pacific islanders were skilled enough to be navigators to sail against the prevailing winds and currents. 人类学、语言学和考古学的有力证据都显示,居住在太平洋岛上的人们拥有领航员才拥有的技巧,可以迎着强大的风和水流航行。

要点 这个单词可以起到突出强调的作用,通常用于形容事物的影响力之大。

parlor'pɑ:rl?rn. 客厅

例句 The first kinetoscope parlors for viewing films were modeled on phonograph parlors. 最早用于观影的电影放映厅是在模仿留声机音乐播放厅的基础上建立的。

patchy'p??ia. 有补丁的;质量不一致的;不均匀的

例句 A patchy environment is thought to increase stability for it has the ability to support a wide variety of organisms. 不均衡的环境被认为能够增加稳定性,因为它有能力支持多种多样的生物体生存。

pathp?θ]n. 道路;路线;小路

例句 Emergency management officials said some residents in the storm's path headed straight for the emergency shelters. 应急管理人员表示,一些受到暴风影响的居民直接奔向了避难所。

同义 routen. 路线)

penchant'pen??ntn. 爱好,嗜好

例句 Neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself generated theater. 既不是人类模仿的天性也不是对幻想本身的爱好导致了戏剧的产生。

perceptivep?r'septiva. 感知的;有洞察力的;有理解力的

例句 1. The observational assessment and physiological measures revealed that the infant of only a few days is far more perceptive than previously suspected. 观察评估和生理测定揭示出生几天的婴儿比之前预想的更具洞察力。

2. The theory was questioned by this perceptive scholar. 这个理论受到这位有洞察力的学者的质疑。

同义 perceptuala. 知觉的)

perceptualp?r'sep?u?la. 感知的,知觉的

例句 1. In the study of perceptual abilities of infants, some techniques are used to determine infants' responses to various stimuli. 在对婴儿感官能力的研究中,一些方法被用来判定婴儿对各种刺激物的反应。

2. Changes in the infant's general level of motor activity turning the head, blinking the eyes, crying, and so forth have been used by researchers as visual indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities. 婴儿运动的一般水平发生的改变,如转头、眨眼、哭泣等等,被研究者认为是婴儿感知能力的视觉表现。

3. The study shows that people's perceptual and filtering processes will create misunderstandings. 研究显示人们在感知和筛选的过程中会产生误解。

permitp?r'mitv. 允许,许可['p?:rmitn. 许可证,执照

例句 1. The low growth form permits the plants to take advantage of the insulation provided by winter snow. 以低矮的形态生长的植物可以利用冬季积雪提供的保温作用。

2. The villages that had relatively advanced agricultural production permitted not only the survival of peasants but also the accumulation of an agricultural surplus for investment. 那些拥有相对高级的农产品的村庄不但能使生活在那里的农民生存下去,还有积累的富余农产品可以进行投资。

3. The ecology of the area permitted the predators to prowl the surrounding barrens. 这个地区的生态环境使掠食者可以在周围的荒漠中潜行。

同义 enable, allowv. 允许);licensen. 许可证,执照)

phasefeizn. 相位,月相;阶段 v. 分阶段实行

搭配 the phases of the Moon 月相

例句 1. During all phases of sleep, we can observe there are several changes in the air passages. 在睡眠的各个阶段,可以观察到呼吸道存在多种变化。

2. As far back as 30,000 B.C., hunters may have used a system of notation that was engraved on bones and stones to mark phases of the Moon. 远在公元前30000年,捕猎者或许会用刻在骨头和石头上的一系列符号来记录月相。

3. For thousands of years, the phases of the Moon have been used as primary divisions of time. 几千年来,月相一直被用于区分时间。

同义 periodn. 时期)

pipeline'paiplainn. 管线,管道

例句 Pipelines carrying oil can be broken by faults and cause serious oil spills. 石油运输管道会因故障破损,导致严重的石油泄漏。

plastic'pl?stikn. 塑料;[常 pl.]塑料制品 a. 塑料的

搭配 plastic trash bags 塑料垃圾袋;plastic bead 塑料珠子

例句 Petrochemicals such as dyes, fertilizers, and plastic are all made from petroleum. 染料、肥料和塑料等石油化工制品都是由石油加工而成的。

plugpl?gn. 插头;塞子 v. 把…塞住;宣传

例句 The ship was badly holed, and fortunately, a hole the size of a man's fist was plugged by a piece of coral. 这艘船已经千疮百孔,但幸运的是,一个像拳头那么大的洞被一块珊瑚堵住了。

portable'p?:rt?bla. 轻便的;手提式的

搭配 portable camera 便携式照相机

例句 Nowadays, portable drilling machines that can be dismantled and removed are manufactured. 如今,既能拆卸又能移动的便携式钻孔机被制造出来了。

要点 portable computer表示“手提电脑”,常见的还有tablet,表示“平板电脑”。

potpɑ:tn. 壶;罐;锅

例句 In some religious ceremonies, pots played an important role. 在一些宗教仪式上,罐子有很重要的作用。

preservation?prez?r'vei?nn. 保护;贮藏;保存

例句 1. Carbonization is a more precise process of preservation than replacement. 碳化是一个更精确的保存过程,而不是替换过程。

2. Attack by scavengers, bacteria and chemical decay, along with the destruction by erosion and other geologic agencies, makes the odds against preservation very high. 清除剂、细菌和化学腐蚀的侵害,加上侵蚀和其他地质作用的破坏,这些都提高了贮藏的难度。

3. Even if plants or animals become fossilized, permanent preservation cannot be guaranteed after burial. 即使动植物变成了化石,在被埋葬之后也不能保证这些化石能够被永久保存。

prevalent'prev?l?nta. 流行的,普遍的

例句 1. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, these species of deer have been prevalent. 在美国太平洋西北部,这些种类的鹿很常见。

2. In the equatorial mountains, the low growth form of plants is less prevalent than in other areas. 在赤道地区的山脉上,植物以低矮形态生长的现象就不像其他地区那样普遍了。

3. Colds are often prevalent in winter. 感冒通常在冬天流行。

要点 prevalent的词义更接近于in style,表示“流行的”,不常用commonuniversal替代,这两个词多用来表达“普通的”含义,但prevalent强调的是“流行”。

principal'prins?pla. 主要的 n. 负责人;校长

例句 1. Not until the eighteenth century did the banks begin to provide capital for business investment and their principal function was to provide funds for the state. 直到18世纪,银行才开始为商业投资提供资金,而他们的主要职能是为国家提供资金。

2. Throughout the Middle Ages, the principal seagoing ship was the galley. 在整个中世纪,航海主要使用大帆船。

要点 principal最常用的词义是“主要的”,相当于the most important。另外,principal的词形与principle“原理”十分相似,在阅读中一定要看仔细。

questionable'kwes??n?bla. 可疑的;不可靠的

例句 Because the yawning patterns of children and adults are proved to be different, this evidence is questionable. 由于儿童和成人打哈欠的模式被证明是不同的,因此这一证据还有待证实。

rawr?:a. 生的;自然状态的,未经加工的

例句 1. In the Middle East, there are few useful and decorative raw materials, but in neighboring regions, they can be found easily. 在中东地区,有用的装饰性原材料很少,但在周边地区这些材料可以很容易找到。

2. Steam is the motive force of the Industrial Revolution and coal and iron are the necessary raw materials. 蒸汽是工业革命的驱动力,而煤炭和铁矿都是必需的原材料。

recallri'k?:lv. 回忆起 n. 记性;召回

例句 1. Young children have better long-term recall of short verbal conversations than the long ones. 小孩子对简短交谈的长期记忆比那些较长的对话要好。

2. The passage of time does not account for the inability to recall early experiences since adults have excellent recognition of pictures of people who attended high school with them 35 years ago. 时光流逝无法解释为何我们不能记起早期的经历,因为成人可以很容易认出照片中35年前一起学习的高中同学。

3. The old scholar recalled that the festival got started in the 1930s. 那位年长的学者记得,这个节日的庆祝始于20世纪30年代。

同义 recollectv. 回忆起)

reclamation?rekl?'mei?nn. 开垦;改造

例句 1. Between 1590 and 1665, land reclamation continued, and almost 100,000 hectares were reclaimed from the wetland. 1590年至1665年之间,土地开垦得以继续,几乎100000公顷的湿地都被开垦了。

2. The investors built windmills to power the drainage pumps, thus they were able to lease the reclamation to farmers as early as 1612, and received annual leasing payments at an interest rate of 17 percent. 投资者们建造风车来为排水泵提供动力,这样他们早在1612年就得以把开垦的土地出租给农民们,并以每年17%的利率收取租金。

3. Land reclamation and improvement allowed the Dutch to get agricultural products that they wanted. 土地的开垦和改善使荷兰人可以得到他们想要的农产品。

reflectionri'flek?nn. 反映;深思;反射

搭配 without reflection 轻率;on reflection 经再三思考

例句 1. They found that systematic reflection on teaching required the ability to understand classroom events in an objective manner. 他们发现对教学的系统反思要求教师具备以客观的方式理解课堂事件的能力。

2. Through their work they proved conclusively that reflection benefits both teachers and students though it is difficult. 通过他们的工作,最终证实尽管反思很难,但对老师和学生来说都是有益的。

3. Whether a person can overcome the difficulties in the process of reflection may depend on the nature and intensity of their motivation to reflect. 一个人能否克服在反思中遇到的困难或许取决于反思的动机的本质和强烈程度。

reflectiveri'flektiva. 反应的;深思熟虑的

例句 1. The volunteers in the program said that they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give them enough time to develop their reflective skills. 参与该项目的志愿者表示,他们发现很难不顾及他人当下的需求,来为自己争取足够的时间提升反应能力。

2. The work of the two persons suggests the importance of recognizing some of the difficulties in the reflective practice. 这两个人的工作显示出,在反思性实践的过程中,认识到有困难存在是十分重要的。

refreshri'fre?v. 使清新;(使)精神振作;(使)恢复活力

例句 It was such a hot night that I had a cold shower to refresh myself. 那天晚上很热,我不得不冲个冷水澡来提提神。

reluctantri'l?kt?nta. 不情愿的,勉强的

例句 Artists who were most dependent on photography were reluctant to admit that they had used it, because their professional standing would be affected. 主要依赖摄影技术的艺术家们不愿承认他们使用过这种技术,因为他们的专业地位可能会受到影响。

repudiateri'pju:dieitv. 与(某人)断绝来往;脱离关系

例句 The worker was bound to the employer by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership. 员工因一份共同的合同而受到老板的束缚,这份合同的任何一方都可以拒绝履行,因此他们之间的关系也被概念化为一种合作关系。

reservoir'rez?rvwɑ:rn. 水库,蓄水池;汇集

例句 Some scholars agree that the construction of small dams and reservoirs indicates the farmers are intensifying their efforts. 一些学者同意,小型水坝和水库的建设证明了这些农民付出了更多的努力。

residence'rezid?nsn. 住处;居住,(合法)居住资格

例句 1. The residence time of water in a lake is the average length of time that any detailed molecule of water remains in the lake. By dividing the volume of water in the lake, the rate that water leaves the lake can be calculated. 水在湖里的停留时间是指湖中每一个精确的水分子在湖里停留的平均时长,通过划分湖中的水量,能够计算出湖水离开湖的速率。

2. Archaeologists find that the most isolated residences also obtained some pottery and probably food from some distance away during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 考古学家发现在1112世纪期间,最与世隔绝的住房中也有一些来自较远地区的陶器和食物。

restless'restl?sa. 不安的,焦躁的;不停的

例句 He found that caged birds became restless when they would normally have begun migration in the wild. 他发现那些本该在野外开始迁徙的鸟在被困于笼中时会变得焦躁不安。

restrictedri'striktida. 限制的;受约束的

例句 1. The produce was transported to cities where the consumption of fruit and vegetables was no longer restricted to the wealthy. 农产品被运送到城市中去,在那里水果和蔬菜的消费群体不再只局限于富裕的人。

2. The Columbian white-tailed deer was once very common in the open prairie country, but now it is restricted to the low and marshy islands. 在辽阔的草原国家,哥伦比亚白尾鹿曾经一度十分常见,可是现在却只能在低地和湿地看到了。

routeru:tn. 路线;路程

例句 1. Through this route, people would be able to enter the southern areas of America. 通过这条路线,人们可以到达美国南部区域。

2. Rock paintings in the Sahara prove that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and there were trade routes across the Sahara. 撒哈拉沙漠中的岩石壁画证明马匹和车辆曾被用作穿越沙漠的工具,而且存在横穿撒哈拉的贸易路线。

3. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into more accessible route of trade and communication. 骆驼把沙漠从一个障碍转变成一个可以通行的贸易和交流路线。

rural'rur?la. 乡村的,农村的;田园的

例句 1. Increased agricultural production made great contributions to the development of the rural industry. 日益增长的农业生产对乡村工业的发展作出了极大的贡献。

2. Cities are warmer than the surrounding rural areas, which produces a phenomenon called the urban heat island. 城市比周围的农村地区温度要高,这产生了一种称做城市热岛的现象。

3. A deep attachment to the land and the stability which rural life engendered, fostered the Roman virtues. 对土地深深的依恋以及乡村生活的稳定性造就了罗马人的美德。

screenskri:nn. 屏幕 v. 掩蔽;筛选;审查

例句 1. The new technological and aesthetic developments included the use of color, new screen formats, and television. 新的技术和美学发展包括颜色的使用、新的屏幕格式和电视机。

2. Camera at that time was a boxlike device that used a pinhole or lens to throw an image onto a ground-glass screen or a piece of white paper. 那个时代的照相机是一种类似盒子的设备,通过针孔或透镜将影像投射到毛玻璃屏幕或一张白纸上面。

3. She methodically screened and cultured some of the soil samples and then sent them to her partner. 她系统地筛选并培养了一些土壤的样本,然后把它们送到了合作者那里。

要点 screen在介绍计算机等电子产品的时候十分常见,但它还可以表示“审查;筛选”。

seasonal'si:z?nla. 季节的;随季节而变化的;周期性的

例句 1. The changes in daily and seasonal climates occurred before the retreat of the seas back into the major ocean basins. 日常和季节性的气候变化发生在海水退回到主要的海洋盆地之前。

2. The warming or cooling of the Earth, changes in seasonal fluctuations or ocean currents and changing positions of the continents are supposed to be the reason of the mass extinction. 地球变暖或变冷,季节性变动或洋流的改变,以及大陆板块位置的改变都被认为是大灭绝的原因。

secures?'kjurv. 获得;确保

例句 1. By singing loudly, the birds could possibly secure more food and result in faster growth or larger size. 通过高声鸣叫,鸟儿或许可以得到更多的食物,这样就可以生长得更快,体型也变得更大。

2. Although dry periods forced people to move south, they returned once their food supply was secured. 尽管干旱期迫使人们向南迁移,但是当粮食的供应得到保障时,他们就会返回。

3. The situation required that they must exploit larger areas of land to secure the same amount of food, clothing, and other necessities. 形势要求他们必须开发更大面积的土地以保证获得相同数量的食物、衣服和其他必需品。

要点 我们都很熟悉secure作为“确保安全”的含义,如:secure a place;但是要注意这个词表示“获得”的含义也很常见,比如:secure food“获得食物”。

settle'setlv. 安定;定居;解决

搭配 settle down 平静;定居,过安定的生活

例句 1. Microscopic organisms settle to the seafloor and accumulate in marine mud. 微生物定居在海底,并积聚在海泥中。

2. Contrary to the arguments that much of the Pacific was settled by Polynesians accidentally marooned after being lost and adrift, it seems reasonable that this feat was accomplished by deliberate colonization. 有说法认为,因意外迷路和漂泊而最终孤立无援的波利尼西亚人在太平洋的大部分地区定居,相反的说法则认为这些功绩是通过有目的的殖民远征而实现的。

3. His hypothesis received support for the fact that the greatest diversity in native American languages occurs along the west coast, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest. 他的假设得到了支持是基于这样的事实:美国本土语言的多样性出现于西海岸,意味着这里是人们最早定居的地方。

settlement'setlm?ntn. 解决;住宅区;定居

例句 1. The settlement was inhabited by people who came from the nearby areas. 从附近地区过来的人们住在了这个住宅区。

2. Hundreds of tiny plants still showed how the inhabitants exploited nut in nearby oak forests, but as the climate dried up, the forests retreated from the vicinity of the settlement. 数百棵矮小的植物仍然显示了居民们如何在附近的橡树林中采集坚果,然而当气候变得干燥时,森林向离居住地更远的方向后退了。

要点 settlement虽然有“解决”的含义,但是在有关自然科学和环境科学的文章中,这个单词作为“定居”的含义更加常见。

sibling'sibli?n. 兄弟姊妹

例句 1. More of a nestling's genes will be passed to the next generation if there is enough food for its siblings to survive. 如果幼鸟的兄弟姐妹们能有足够的食物维持生存的话,那么它的更多基因都将传给下一代。

2. For most of us, only a few events could be remembered when we were children usually ones that were meaningful and distinctive, such as being hospitalized or a sibling's birth. 对于我们中的大多数人来说,当我们还是儿童的时候仅仅能记得一些事情——通常是那些意义重大或与众不同的事情,比如住院或者弟弟妹妹的出生。

3. A begging nestling that secures food at the expense of putting their siblings at risk might actually leave behind fewer copies of its genes overall than it might otherwise. 实际上,通过乞求的鸣叫来使自己获得足够的食物,却将兄弟姐妹们置于危险之中的雏鸟留下的基因总数与不采取这种方法的雏鸟相比要少。

soaksoukv. 浸泡,浸湿

搭配 soak up the sun 沐浴阳光

例句 In the city, rainwater cannot soak into most surfaces, so it will quickly run off. 在城市中,雨水不能渗透大多数地面,因此会迅速流失。

spillspilv.(使)溢出;跌下 n. 溢出的东西

例句 This study gives an analysis of the effects of oil spills on the environment. 该研究针对石油泄漏会对环境造成的影响作出分析。

同义 overflowv. 溢出)

派生 spillagen. 溢出)

spotspɑ:tn. 地点;斑点 v. 认出;用点作记号

搭配 on the spot 当场,在现场

例句 1. Butterflies also compete with each other for the best spot of sunlight in the forests. 在森林中,蝴蝶也会互相竞争光照最充足的地点。

2. The girl was spotted in an amateur competition when she was sixteen. 她在16岁参加业余竞赛时被发掘。

同义 positionn. 地点);identify, recognizev. 认出)

派生 spotlightn. 聚光灯)

spoutspautn. 喷出,涌出;(茶壶等的)嘴

例句 1. Although this rise of oil is almost always controlled today, spouts of oil or gushers were common at that time. 尽管这种石油向上喷涌的现象在今天几乎已经得到控制,但在那个时候,石油上涌或井喷都是很普遍的。

2. The Chinese adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and made some vessels with decorative patterns especially for the European market. 中国人采用了很多西方特定器皿的样子,比如长嘴瓶,另外还制造了一些印有专为欧洲市场设计的装饰图案的器皿。

strikestraikv. 敲,打;使突然想到;罢工;袭击 n. 罢工;袭击

例句 1. Lightning that strikes the ground is destructive, so even though it represents only 20 percent of all lightning, there are a lot of scientists paying attention to it. 打到地上的闪电很有破坏力,尽管只有20%的闪电会打到地上,仍然有很多科学家对此表示关注。

2. The stream of positive particles that meets the surge of electrons from the cloud often arises from a tall-pointed structure just like a metal flagpole, that's why the subsequent lightning often strikes a tall structure. 与云中的电子团相遇的正电子束通常是从有着尖顶的高层建筑上方升起,而这种建筑就像金属旗杆一样,这就是为何随后的闪电往往会击中高层建筑。

3. Volatile substances usually strike the hound's nose for their distinctive scents. 挥发性物质通常因为特殊的气味而被猎犬闻到。

同义 attackv. 侵袭);smackv. 打,击);walkoutn. 罢工)

supplement's?plim?ntn. 补充;增刊;附录['s?plimentv. 补充

例句 Most of the poor peasant families spun or wove cloth and linens at home in an attempt to supplement meager family income. 多数贫困的农民在家里纺织布匹和亚麻,试图贴补微薄的家用。

派生 supplementarya. 补充的)

要点 supplement通常指的是营养、经济方面的补充或是书籍的补编,比如:a supplement to government funding“对政府款项的补充”。

surroundings?'raundi?n.[常 pl.]周围的事物,环境 a. 周围的

例句 1. No matter how the surroundings were changed, as long as the birds could see the Sun, they could find the directions correctly. 无论周围环境发生何种改变,鸟儿只要能看到太阳,就可以准确无误地找到方向。

2. With respect to the surroundings, the position of this device could be changed by revolving either the inner cage containing the birds or the outer walls. 至于环境,该装置可以通过旋转内部鸟笼和外墙来改变位置。

3. In winter the heat produced by a city can equal or surpass the amount of heat available from the Sun and all the heat that warms a building eventually transfers to the surrounding air. 冬天,城市产生的热量可以达到或超过太阳可以提供的热量,而且所有用来供暖的热量最后都会转移到周围的空气中。

要点 surrounding一词由surround“环境”变化而来,通常指的是周遭环境,要注意与environment区别,后者多指“自然环境”。

terrace'ter?sn. 排屋;露天阶梯看台;梯田

例句 In the thirteenth century, some scholars thought strongly that the construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces and field houses had no relation to the growth in the number of people. 13世纪,很多学者强烈地认为小型水坝、水库、梯田以及储藏室的建造与人口数量的增长无关。

textile'tekstailn. 纺织品

例句 1. The disadvantage of waterpower is that streams do not always flow in places that are suitable to build factories, which explains why so many water-powered grain and textile mills were located in undesirable places. 水力有这样的缺点,不是所有的溪流都会流入适合建造工厂的地点,这就解释了为何许多依靠水力的谷物磨坊和纺织厂都位于不理想的位置。

2. At that time, the European textile industry's demand for American export products had been increased. 那时,欧洲纺织业对美国出口产品的需求有所增加。

同义 fabricn. 织物)

tolerate'tɑ:l?reitv. 忍受;容许;承认

例句 1. Perhaps the reason of the extinction of dinosaurs was that they could not tolerate the extreme temperature changes. 或许恐龙灭绝的原因是它们无法忍受气候的急剧变化。

2. The complex climax communities like temperate forest will tolerate considerable damage from weather to pests. 像温带森林这样复杂的顶级群落可以忍受从气候到虫害等强度较大的损害。

3. The so-called serpentine soils are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate the insufficiency of this mineral can survive here. 所谓的蛇纹岩土缺乏钙质,只有能够忍受这种物质匮乏的植物才能在此生存。

同义 endure, withstandv. 忍受;容许)

trailtreiln. 痕迹;小路 v. 跟踪;拉;蔓延

例句 The patterns of these ceramics were outlined in a raised trail of slip, as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value. 这些陶器上的图案是在有浮雕痕迹的纸片上勾勒出来的,就像许多用于丧葬的陶器是模仿其他用更好材质制成的容器制作的。

turnpike't?:rnpaikn. 收费公路;收税关卡

例句 1. The first step to improve western transportation was to set up turnpikes. 改善西方交通系统的第一步就是设立收税关卡。

2. These turnpike roads were very slow and too costly for some people to travel on them. 这些收费公路不仅行驶缓慢,而且对一些人来说花费太高。

unanticipated??n?n'tisipeitida. 意料之外的

例句 With the rapid technical development of photography, the introduction of lighter and simpler equipment and new emulsions that coated photographic plates, film, and paper, images can be made at unanticipated speed. 随着摄影技术的迅速发展,以及更轻薄、更简单的设备的引进,还有新的可以涂在摄影底片、胶卷和相纸上的感光乳剂,图片可以以意想不到的速度制作出来。

urban'?:rb?na. 城市的,市内的

例句 1. Trade was the mainstay of the urban economy in the Middle East as caravans negotiated in the surrounding desert, and it was only restricted by mountain ranges and the access to water. 贸易是中东城市经济体的主要部分,大篷车在周围的沙漠地区进行谈判,而唯一的障碍不过是山峰及通往水路的道路。

2. In recent years, the urban population decreased rapidly. 在最近几年,城市人口迅速减少。

utilize'ju:t?laizv. 利用

例句 1. The introduction of new screen was delayed for a quarter century, and color also did not become a norm until the 1950s, though utilized over the next two decades for special productions. 新型屏幕的引进被推迟了25年,而色彩虽然在接下来的20年中被用于特殊的产品,但直到20世纪50年代才成为一种标准。

2. Scientists are planning to utilize a green and environmentally-friendly alternative to diesel, for example biofuel. 科学家希望利用一种绿色环保的能源以替代柴油,比如生物燃料。

要点 短语make use ofutilize的含义相同,都表示“利用”。

valuable'v?lju?bla. 贵重的;有价值的 n.[常 pl.]贵重物品

例句 1. The acacia trees are a valuable source that provides nutrition for the ants. 金合欢树是一种有价值的资源,可以为蚂蚁提供营养。

2. The vegetation is considered valuable for its ability to prevent erosion and marshland deterioration. 这种植物可以遏制侵蚀和沼泽地恶化,因此很有价值。

3. The rare and valuable metals and stones found in the Middle Eastern deserts have always been in high demand in surrounding areas. 附近地区对中东沙漠中发现的稀少而贵重的金属和石头有着很高的需求。

visible'viz?bla. 看得见的;明显的

例句 1. When an animal is signaling, the colors would not be very visible if it was sitting in a place with a yellowish or greenish background. 当动物发出信号时,如果它所在的地方有着黄色或绿色的背景,那么它的颜色将无法被明显地看见。

2. Despite all the highly visible technological developments in theatrical and home delivery of the moving image that have occurred over the decades since then, there is no innovation that can be regarded as a similar kind of turning point. 尽管高度可视化技术在戏剧和家用动态影像呈现方面的发展已超过数十年之久,依然没有一项类似的创新可以被看做是与之匹敌的转折点。

3. Although the real Sun was visible, the birds also kept a constant direction when they moved across the sky. 即使可以看到真正的太阳,但当鸟儿飞翔时,仍然会保持一个方向。

同义 observable, noticeablea. 明显的)

warnw?:rnv. 警告,告诫;通知

例句 A number of writers have warned that the assumption of such a sequence a development from the simple and the geometric to the complex and naturalistic obscures the cultural continuities in aboriginal Australia. 很多作家告诫,这样的假设——从简单和呈几何特征的,到复杂和自然的——模糊了澳大利亚土著文化的连续性。

wheatwi:tn. 小麦;朴实的人

例句 This region has a semiarid climate, and for 50 years, it only supported a low-intensity agricultural economy of cattle ranching and wheat farming. 这个地区是半干旱气候,50年来仅支持小规模的农业经济——放牧业和小麦种植。

 


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