托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(三)

2016-08-18 10:24:24   Tag:

英语单词

 

托福英语

 
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托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(三):link v. 连接;联系 n. 环节;联系 搭配 social links 社会联系例句 Recent discoveries of fossils show the link between land mammals and cetaceans. 最新发现的化石显示了陆地哺乳动物和鲸类动物之间的联系。

  link  v. 连接;联系 n. 环节;联系

  搭配 social links 社会联系

  例句 Recent discoveries of fossils show the link between land mammals and cetaceans. 最新发现的化石显示了陆地哺乳动物和鲸类动物之间的联系。

  要点 在阅读中,当看到link时,要注意文中提及的事物之间存在何种联系。

  mild[]a. 轻微的;温和的;和善的

  搭配 mild weather 温和的天气

  例句 Data from different sources indicate that the late Cretaceous climate was milder compared with today's. 不同的数据来源都显示出白垩纪晚期的气候与现在相比要更加温和。

  同义 slight(a. 轻微的);temperate(a. 温和的)

  要点 mild多用于描述轻微的变化或者不太严重的情况,可以描述病情、天气以及性格等。

  momentous[]a. 重大的,重要的;严重的

  例句 1. The disaster had momentous impacts on the sparsely-populated region. 这场灾难对这个人口稀少的地区造成了重大的冲击。

  2. Which university to choose is a momentous decision for every student. 选择哪所大学对每个学生来说都是非常重要的决定。

  要点 momentous通常用于形容重大的影响或决定,所以当看到这个单词的时候要注意这部分内容可能比较关键。

  namely[]ad. 即,也就是

  例句 The empirical evidence shows an altogether different function for yawning —namely, that yawning prepares us for a change in activity level. 经验上的证据表明了打哈欠的完全不同的功能——也就是说,打哈欠让我们对活动水平的改变作好准备。

  要点 namely后面的句子一般都是对前文的进一步说明,因此后面的句子可以加强对前文内容的理解。

  nonetheless[?n?ne?'les]ad. 虽然如此,但是;依然

  例句 The wall paintings in the cave are complex, but they are delicate nonetheless. 这些洞穴中的壁画十分复杂,但却非常精美。

  要点 与nonetheless同义的词还有nevertheless,两者都表示转折关系。

  noticeable[]a. 明显的;值得注意的

  例句 1. For the majority of lakes that are surrounded by forests, input from overland flow is too small to have a noticeable effect. 对于大多数被森林环绕的湖泊来说,流入其中的地面水流量太小,几乎没有明显的影响。

  2. Red lettering on the signs is much more noticeable than blue. 标识上的红色印字比蓝色的更加显眼。

  同义 conspicuous, outstanding(a. 明显的);remarkable(a. 值得注意的)

  numerous[]a. 许多的;无数的

  例句 1. Based on the studies of extinction rates of numerous fossil groups, paleontologists have drawn the conclusion that mass extinctions occur about every 26 million years. 基于对许多化石群灭绝率的研究,古生物学者得出这样的结论:大约每隔2600万年就会发生一次大灭绝事件。

  2. The Sun is the hub of a huge rotating system that contains eight planets and their satellites, and numerous small bodies including asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. 太阳是一个巨大的旋转着的系统中心,其中包括8颗行星及它们的卫星,以及许多小型星体,包括小行星、彗星以及流星。

  3. Cosmic rays consist of numerous different particles that are moving rapidly. 宇宙射线包括无数不同的迅速移动的粒子。

  同义 countless(a. 无数的)

  要点 numerous用于描述数量多得数不清的情况,有时也可以表示夸张,比如:It has numerous advantages.

  obvious[]a. 显然的,明显的

  例句 It should be obvious that cetaceans, porpoises, and dolphins are mammals for they breathe through lungs, not through gills. 很明显,鲸类、鼠海豚和海豚都是哺乳动物,因为它们都靠肺而不是腮来呼吸。

  要点 在阅读中看到obvious要格外留意,因为相关句子中通常包含重要信息,比如这个句型:The most obvious difference is...

  occasional[l]a. 偶然的,间或发生的;临时的

  例句 1. The drastic decrease in diversity of species made this place a much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants. 物种多样性的急剧下降使这个地方变得更加贫瘠,只有星星点点的苔藓、地衣和一些覆盖在地上的垫状植物。

  2. Another popular form of occasional trade is auction. 拍卖是另一种流行的临时交易形式。

  同义 infrequent(a. 偶然的)

  派生 occasionally(ad. 偶然地)

  要点 occasionally通常表示某一事件并非经常发生,强调的是一种偶然性,比如:Occasionally one can determine whether tools to be used.

  onward[]a. 向前的 ad. 向前;在前面

  例句 From the eleventh century onward, farmers started to increase food production on existing farmland and started bringing more land under cultivation. 从11世纪以来,农民开始在已有的耕地上增加食物产量并着手开发更多的耕地。

  同义 forward(a. 向前的)

  要点 在表示时间的时候,onward指的是从一个时间点开始,继续往下推算,即“从…以来”。

  overall[]a. 全面的,综合的 ad. 总共['ouv?r?:l]n. 工作服,工装裤

  例句 1. Although the deer populations naturally fluctuate, the early settlers in the Puget Sound also resulted in an overall decline in the deer populations at that time. 虽然鹿群的数量有自然波动,但是早期定居在普吉特海湾的人们在那时也导致了鹿群数量的总体下降。

  2. The burning of fuel is not the only source of the increased heat and there are other factors that contribute to the higher overall temperature in this city. 燃烧燃料并不是不断增加的热能的唯一来源,还有其他因素导致城市的总体温度变得更高。

  3. In the experiment, the overall growth of algae and the number of species all reduced. 在实验中,藻类的整体生长水平和物种数量都有所降低。

  要点 overall用于描述总体形势变化,比如:overall decline或者the overall improvement in living standard。

  particular[]a. 特定的;独特的;详细的 n. 详情

  例句 1. The study of the combination of plant species that inhabit a particular locality became a scientific discipline toward the end of the nineteenth century. 对于生长在特殊环境中的植被组合的研究直到19世纪末才成为一个科学学科。

  2. Such activities had a major effect on the local area, in particular with the construction of infrastructure such as roads, which improved access to remote areas. 这类活动在当地有着重要影响,特别是基础设施建设,比如道路,它为人们到达偏远地区提供了便利。

  3. Each person is responsible for a particular part of the process. 每个人负责这个程序的特定部分。

  同义 selected(a. 特定的);unique(a. 独特的)

  要点 在阅读中看到particular这个单词一定要留意,因为它通常描述特定的情况或事件,比如:the particular association of plants and animals;a particular perceptual ability等。

  peak[]n. 最高点;顶峰 v. 达到顶点 a. 最高的;最大值的

  例句 1. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period. 洞穴艺术似乎在晚期石器时代末达到了顶峰。

  2. After the peak year of 1957, the birth rate in Canada began to decline. 1957年的高峰期之后,加拿大的出生率就开始下降了。

  同义 maximum(n. 最高点);summit(n. 顶峰)

  要点 托福阅读文章中,也出现过peak作为“最高点”的含义,比如:reach one's peak。

  peculiar[]a. 独特的;罕见的;古怪的

  例句 1. The mercantile economy was characterized by a peculiar moral stance that is typical of people who live by trade — an attitude that is individualistic, calculating, risk taking, and accommodative to circumstances. 商业经济以独特的道德立场为特点,它也是以交易为生的人群的特点——以一种独立、审慎、冒险的态度来适应环境。

  2. Each product had its own peculiar characteristics. 每个产品都独具特色。

  同义 distinctive(a. 独特的)

  派生 peculiarity(n. 特性);peculiarly(ad. 尤其,特别)

  要点 peculiar用于描述特殊的事物,当看到这个词的时候要留意;另外,其副词形式peculiarly常表示突出强调,比如:peculiarly powerful Roman cement“效力极高的罗马水泥”。

  peculiarity[]n. 特色,独特性;怪癖

  例句 1. He was strongly attracted by her peculiarities of dress and behaviour. 他被她独具特色的穿衣风格和行为举止深深地吸引了。

  2. The gypsum was found to possess peculiarities of composition and structure that suggested it had formed on desert flats. 石膏被发现具有合成物的特点和结构,暗示它是在沙漠平原形成的。

  peripheral[]a. 不重要的;外围的;周围(神经系统)的

  搭配 peripheral nerves 末梢神经

  例句 1. The stability of Middle Eastern governments was threatened by their lack of control over international trade patterns and over their own peripheral territories. 缺乏对国际贸易模式及自身外围地区的控制威胁到中东政权的稳定。

  2. Peripheral people had a great advantage in their dealings with the center, making government authority insecure and anxious. 外围的人们在与中央打交道时拥有很大优势,使政府当局感到焦虑不安。

  要点 作者一般用peripheral来描述不重要的人或事物,比如:peripheral territory“外围地带”,peripheral people“无关紧要的人”。

  positive[]a. 肯定的;积极的;乐观的

  搭配 positive charge 正电荷

  例句 1. The stream of positive particles that meets the surge of electrons from the cloud often results from a tall-pointed structure such as a metal flagpole or a tower. 带有正电荷的电流遇上来自云里的电子激增,这通常源于一个高而尖的建筑结构,譬如金属旗杆或塔。

  2. He believed writer should stress the positive aspects of life. 他认为作家应该着重展现生活的积极面。

  要点 positive常用来表达作者的态度,是“积极的”意思,与其相反的表达是negative“消极的”。

  precede[]v. 在…之前,先于

  例句 The idea of sea-floor spreading actually preceded the theory of plate tectonics. 海底扩展概念实际上先于板块构造理论。

  同义 forerun(v. 先于)

  要点 当看到precede这个词的时候要特别留意,因为很容易造成句意的混淆。此外,这个词也可以用be prior to这个短语来替代。

  precise[]a. 准确的,精确的;严谨的

  搭配 to be precise 准确地说

  例句 1. Replacement can be a marvelously precise process, so that details of shell ornamentation, tree rings in wood, and delicate structures in bone are accurately preserved.(地质)交代作用是一个极其精确的过程,所以关于贝壳装饰、树木的年轮和骨头的精细结构的细节都被精确地保存下来。

  2. Since precise information is insufficient, it will be extremely hard to do this research. 由于缺少足够的精确信息,要做这项研究是极为艰难的。

  同义 accurate, exact(a. 准确的,精确的)

  要点 虽然precise表示“严谨的”意思很常见,但在阅读中,其表示“精确的”含义更常用。

  predominant[]a. 主要的;占优势的;盛行的

  例句 1. The archaeological evidence clearly indicates, however, that Teotiluacan was the center that did arise as the predominant force in the area by the first century A.D. 然而,考古学证据清晰指出Teotiluacan是公元1世纪主要力量崛起的中心。

  2. Dark blue is the predominant color in the prince's room. 深蓝色是王子房间的主色。

  同义 dominant, principal(a. 主要的)

  要点 predominant最常用的含义是“主要的”。当作为“显著的”含义讲时可以用remarkable来替代使用。

  presumably[]ad. 据推测,大概,可能

  例句 The ancient Maya were presumably more experienced and did better, but nevertheless they also must have faced risks of crop failures from droughts and hurricanes. 古玛雅人可能更有经验、更为出色,但是他们也肯定需要面对由干旱和飓风带来的农作物歉收的风险。

  要点 presumably表示一种推测,是一种不确定的语气。

  previous[]a. 先的,在前的

  例句 1. If spring temperatures are high for too long, then all the snowfall from the previous winter will melt. 如果春天高温持续很长一段时间,那么在之前一个冬天存留的积雪就会融化。

  2. A library notice was sent to him at his previous address. 图书馆给他的通知被寄到了他以前的地址。

  previously[]ad. 以前,先前

  例句 1. Indium had previously been allocated an atomic mass between those of arsenic and selenium. 以前,铟元素的原子质量被排在砷和硒之间。

  2. Steamboats were not only faster but also transported upriver freight for about one tenth of what it had previously cost on hand-propelled keelboats. 汽船不仅更快,它往上游运输货物的成本大约是之前的手摇船的十分之一。

  要点 previously常出现在阅读考题的选项中,用于考查对先前文章内容的了解。看到这样的单词时要准确及时地定位信息。

  primarily[]ad. 主要地;首先

  例句 In a microwave oven, radiation penetrates food and is then absorbed primarily by water molecules, causing heat to spread through the food. 在微波炉中,热辐射穿透食物,主要被水分子吸收,使高温在食物中扩散。

  要点 primarily经常会在阅读考题中出现,比如:The author includes the information that“surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading”.

  primary[]a. 最初的;首要的;基本的

  例句 1. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. 有时,初级群体关系是从二级群体关系演化而来的。

  2. Not surprisingly, sociologists find that the strength of a group's primary ties has implications for the group's functioning. 意料之中的是,社会学家们发现一个组织主要关系的力量会对这个组织的功能发挥作用。

  同义 dominant(a. 首要的)



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