托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(二)

2016-08-18 10:21:21   Tag:

英语单词

 

托福英语

 
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托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(二): exclusive[]a. 独占的;除外的 n. 独家新闻 搭配 exclusive of 除…外,不计算在内 要点 和exclusive对应的单词是inclusive,它的含义是“包括的,包含的”,exclusive常见的词义是“独占的”。

   exclusive[]a. 独占的;除外的 n. 独家新闻

  搭配 exclusive of 除…外,不计算在内

  例句 When the outsiders encountered the islanders, suppositions on the origin of them began in the absence of solid linguistic, archaeological, and biological data, thus many fanciful and mutually exclusive theories were devised. 当外来者遇到这些岛民时,便在缺少固定的语言、考古和生物学方面信息的情况下猜测他们的起源地,因此提出了许多异想天开且相互矛盾的理论。

  要点 和exclusive对应的单词是inclusive,它的含义是“包括的,包含的”,exclusive常见的词义是“独占的”。

  extent[]n. 程度;范围

  例句 1. Such programs are urgently needed because in most of arid lands there is only a vague idea of the extent of groundwater resources. 这类项目十分急需,因为大部分干旱地区对地下水资源的范围只有模糊的概念。

  2. These innovations in technology boosted production as well as our living standards to an unprecedented extent. 这些技术创新把生产和我们的生活水平提高到一个前所未有的程度。

  同义 magnitude(n. 范围)

  要点 短语to...extent这一用法很常见,表示“到…的程度”。

 essential[]a. 基本的;本质的 n. 要素

  例句 1. As the orderly nature of our solar system, most astronomers conclude that it's essential for the planets to form at the same time and from the same material as the Sun. 由于太阳系有序的本质,大部分天文学家都总结了这样的规律:行星基本上是在同一时间形成的,而且构成行星的物质与太阳相同。

  2. Calcium is essential for the health of bones and teeth. 钙对骨骼和牙齿的健康至关重要。

  同义 substantial(a. 基本的;本质的)

  要点 essential不但在阅读文章中十分常见,在考查考生对基本信息的掌握的题目中也会经常出现,比如:Which of the sentences best expresses the essential information about...?

  exceedingly[]ad. 极端地;非常,极其

  例句 Spartina is an exceedingly competitive plant that spreads mainly by underground stems. 大米草属植物具有非凡的竞争力,这种植物主要靠地下茎来扩散。

  同义 extremely(ad. 极端地)

  要点 exceedingly一词源自exceed“超过”,这个单词通常用于强调极端的情况或者程度之深,比如:It is exceedingly hard to...

  exception[]n. 除外,例外

  搭配 without exception 无例外地;with the exception of 除…之外

  例句 1. Each plant has certain minerals without exception. 无一例外,每种植物都含有特定的矿物质。

  2. With only one or two exceptions, all the research approaches have the same characteristics. 除了一两个例外,所有这些研究方法都有相同的特征。

 extreme[]a. 极度的,极端的 n. 极端

  搭配 in the extreme 极其

  例句 1. When a heat island is totally formed, variations can be extreme — in winter, busy streets in cities can be 17℃ warmer than side streets. 当热岛完全形成的时候,温差会很极端——在冬季,城市中繁华街道的温度可以比小巷高17摄氏度。

  2. The study revealed how animals survive in extreme temperatures. 这项研究揭示了动物如何在极端温度下生存。

  同义 intense(a. 极度的);uttermost(n. 极端)

  派生 extremely(ad. 极端地)

  要点 extreme的副词形式extremely在托福阅读中也十分常见,经常用于表示程度,比如:Desertification is extremely hard to reverse unless the population is reduced in certain areas.

  frequency[]n. 频繁,经常发生;频率

  例句 With the length and frequency of the infant's attention between these stimuli, precise measurements can be made. 根据婴儿关注这些刺激的时长和频率,可以制定出精确的衡量方法。

  frequent[]a. 时常发生的;惯常的[fri'kwent]v. 时常来访

  例句 1. In a group, frequent communication serves to bring people into closer relationships. 在一个团体中,频繁的交流会让人们建立更密切的关系。

  2. Modern farmers who are trying to grow corn in the ancient Maya homelands have faced frequent crop failures. 试图在古代玛雅的土地上种植作物的现代农民频繁遭遇作物减产的情况。

  派生 frequently(ad. 频繁地)

  要点 frequent通常表示频率,例如:frequent visitor“常客”。frequent的副词形式frequently也经常会用到,比如:Fantasy settings are frequently used to attract children's attention.

  hence[]ad. 因此,所以;今后

  例句 1. Since the ships had relatively shallow hulls, they were unstable when driven by sail or when on rough sea; hence they were unsuitable for the oceangoing voyage. 由于这些船的船体相对较浅,因此当挂起风帆航行或遇到汹涌海浪时无法保持平稳;因此它们不适合用于出海远航。

  2. The data can only represent the full complexity of the global climate and hence may give only limited information about natural variability. 这些数据只能代表全球气候的全部复杂性,因此对于自然变化,可能只能提供有限的信息。

  hypothesis[]n. 假设,假说;前提

  例句 1. Although appealing at the beginning, the hypothesis of a simple climatic change related to sea levels cannot explain all the data. 一开始这个关于气候变化与海平面间联系的假说引起了人们的兴趣,但却不能解释所有的数据。

  2. The professor's hypothesis was that the polluted fishes the whale ate caused their death. 教授的假设是鲸鱼食用的鱼被污染了,从而导致了它的死亡。

  同义 assumption, theory(n. 假设,假说)

  identical[]a. 相同的;同一的;相等的

  例句 1. In another set of experiments, the researchers put identical boxes around the cage with food in only one of the boxes. 在另一组试验中,研究人员把完全相同的箱子放在笼子旁边,其中只有一个箱子里有食物。

  2. The director wants the songs in the drama to be identical to the songs in the film. 导演希望话剧中的歌曲与电影版中的完全相同。

  同义 selfsame(a. 相同的;同一的);identic(a. 同一的)

  要点 identical的出现表示作者希望阐述相同或相等的信息。比如:This pattern is almost identical to that produced today. 在这里出现了be identical to...的用法。

  immediate[]a. 即刻的;最接近的;紧靠的

  例句 1. All these countries had immediate access to the sea, and this had important implications for a significant international resource. 这些国家都有直接通往海上的航线,这一重要关系表明这些国家拥有重要的国际资源。

  2. Reaction from the public and press was immediate and derisive. 公众和媒体立即作出了讥讽的反应。

  同义 proximal(a. 最接近的)

  派生 immediately(ad. 立即地)

  要点 副词immediately在托福阅读中也多次出现,表示“紧靠地”,比如:Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses.

  imply[]v. 意味着;暗示,暗指

  例句 1. More recent data implies that at least some parts of the planet did experience long periods during which liquid water existed on the surface. 更新的数据意味着在很长一段时间中,至少这个星球一部分的地表上曾有液态水存在。

  2. Signs on the skeletal remains of prehistoric figures, including arm-bone size and injury marks, imply that these are the remains of people who were right-handed. 包括臂骨尺寸和受伤痕迹等史前人类遗骨显示的迹象意味着这些都是右撇子人的遗体。

  3. In the technical sense, noise implies a random chaotic disturbance that is usually unwanted. 从技术层面讲,噪音就是通常令人讨厌的杂乱干扰。

  要点 在阅读中,imply, allude和indicate都能表示“暗指,影射”的意思,当读到这些词的时候,要注意相关内容之间存在的联系。

  inaccurate[]a. 错误的;不准确的

  例句 The view that the environment of Mayan people is jungle or tropical rainforest is proved to be inaccurate. 玛雅人生活在丛林或雨林中的观点被证明是错误的。

  inconclusive[]a. 非决定性的;无结果的

  例句 If the observed data from their studies are inconclusive, the researchers are not able to make generalizations. 如果研究员从研究中观察到的数据是非决定性的,那么他们就无法概括出结论。

  同义 indefinite(a. 非决定性的)

  indication[]n. 指出;表示;象征

  例句 1. The difference between the two results provides the researcher with an indication of the level and duration of the response to the stimuli. 两个不同的结果为研究人员提供了可以得知对这些刺激作出反应的程度和持续时间的指示。

  2. These records provide broadly consistent indications that temperature variations can occur on a global scale. 这些记录提供了广泛一致的指示——温度变化会在全球范围内发生。

  indirect[]a. 间接的,迂回的;不直截了当的

  例句 Certainly, rational appeals in advertising aimed at children are limited, as most advertisements use emotional and indirect appeals to the infants' psychological states. 当然,面向儿童的广告中的理性吸引总是有限的,因为这些广告总是对儿童的心理状态施加情绪化和间接化的吸引。

  initial[]a. 开始的,最初的 n. 词首大写字母

  例句 The researchers evaluate that the initial training of the same teachers to view events objectively will take about 20 to 30 hours. 研究者估计,最初训练同一批教师客观看待事件的能力大约需要20到30小时。

  initially[]ad. 开头,最初,首先

  例句 Each soldier received his pay, but in regions without a developed economy there was initially little things to buy. 每名士兵都得到了薪水,但在那些经济不够发达的地区,一开始没有什么可买的东西。

  instance[]n. 例子,事例

  例句 An abandoned field, for instance, will be invaded by various kinds of herbaceous plants and eventually form a forest. 举例来说,一片荒地会被不同种类的草本植物侵占,并最终形成一片森林。

  intentionally[]ad. 有意地,特意地

  例句 The species of fungus maintained its normal daily periods of biological activity for about a week when it was intentionally isolated from all geophysical timing cues in a space shuttle. 当这种真菌在太空舱中被有意地隔绝了所有的地球物理的定时信号时,其正常的日常生理活动大约可以维持一周。

  要点 intentionally用来表明做某事是特意的或者故意的,表明一种主动性。在文章中可能也会用deliberately来代替。

  intrinsic[]a. 固有的;本质的;内在的

  搭配 intrinsic value 内在价值

  例句 1. Increased agricultural production boosted rural industry, which is an intrinsic part of the expansion of industry. 农业生产的增长促进了乡村产业,这是产业扩张的一个内在部分。

  2. During their growing period, parents should take their responsibility to teach children the intrinsic value of good behavior. 在孩子的成长阶段,家长有责任教导他们何为良好品行的内在价值。

  同义 inherent(a. 固有的;本质的;内在的)

  派生 intrinsically(ad. 本质地)

  inveterately[]ad. 积习地;根深蒂固地

  例句 Since many Americans were inveterately restless, rootless, and ambitious, these social traits made the nomadic and daring settlers keep pushing westward beyond the fringes of settlement. 由于大多数美国人自身不安,没有归属感,又抱有雄心壮志,因此,这些社会特性使这些四处游走、大胆的人不断向西移动。

  justify[]v. 证明…正确;为…辩护;对…做出解释

  例句 1. High-priced commodities like spices had to be transported in large bulk to justify the expense and trouble of sailing around the African continent all the way to India and China. 像调料这样的高价商品不得不大量运入,这解释了从非洲大陆航行到印度和中国的开销和麻烦。

  2. An important task for the presidents is to justify for their citizens why the war was inevitable. 总统的一项重要任务是向他们的公民证明为何战争是不可避免的。

  派生 justified(a. 有正当理由的)

  要点 justify可以用于证明那些被质疑的事物的正当性,而其表示“对…做出解释”的词义也很常见。

  likelihood[]n. 可能,可能性

  例句 Environmental characteristics as those presented on ocean floors enhance the likelihood that plant and animal fossils will be found. 洋底呈现的那些环境特征增加了找到植物和动物化石的可能性。

  要点 likelihood指可能发生的情况,因此暗示了事物的不确定性。

  limit[]n. 限度;限制;极限 v. 限制

  例句 1. Like mineral deficiencies can limit the growth of plants, an overabundance of certain minerals can be toxic and also limit their growth. 就像缺乏矿物质会限制植物的生长一样,某种特定的矿物质过多会让植物中毒,而且同样会限制它们的生长。

  2. The structure of the periodic table may limit the number of possible elements. 元素周期表的结构或许会限制可能出现的元素数量。

  派生 limitation(n. 限制)

  要点 在托福阅读中,limit的过去分词limited也经常用作形容词,表示“有限的”,比如:If exposure to bacteria is limited, the soft tissue or actual tissue may be preserved.


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