托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(一)

2016-08-18 10:17:17   Tag:

英语单词

 

托福英语

 
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托福阅读话题词汇-信号词汇篇(一): abruptly ad. 突然地,唐突地2. There is a question related to the evidence that the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean had experienced a great change abruptly about 6 million years ago. 关于地中海地区无脊椎动物区系于大约600万年前经历了突然的巨变的证据存在着质疑。

  abruptly  ad. 突然地,唐突地

  例句 1. As moves from layers of rocks documenting the end of the Cretaceous, many plants and animals disappeared abruptly from the fossil record, and this represented the beginning of the Cenozoic. 就像岩层运动记录着白垩纪的终结那样,许多植物和动物也突然从化石记录中消失了,而这代表新生界的开始。

  2. There is a question related to the evidence that the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean had experienced a great change abruptly about 6 million years ago. 关于地中海地区无脊椎动物区系于大约600万年前经历了突然的巨变的证据存在着质疑。

  同义 suddenly(ad. 突然地)

  要点 abruptly通常表示一种意料之外的突然变化,目的是吸引读者的注意。其用法类似于suddenly,shortly以及sharply。

  advent[]n. 到来,来临;出现

  例句 1. With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, movie became a popular form of mass consumption. 随着1895至1896年电影放映机的出现,电影成为了一种流行的大众消费形式。

  2. With the advent of power-driven machinery, home industry has to give way to the production in mills and factories. 随着动力机器的出现,家庭式产业不得不让位于磨坊和工厂的生产。

  同义 arrival(n. 到来);emergence(n. 出现)

  派生 adventure(n. 冒险;投机活动);adventurer(n. 冒险家;投机商人)

  apparent ]a. 显然的;表面上的;貌似(真实)的

  例句 1. Because of the contradiction of the data and the apparent changes of the mechanisms, the studies become complicated. 由于数据的矛盾以及机制的明显变化,研究变得复杂了。

  2. It was apparent that the glaciation happened in the relatively recent past for the drift was soft and looked like freshly deposited sediment. 很明显,冰川作用就是在不久的过去发生的,因为漂流的浮冰很柔软,看起来就像刚沉淀的沉积物一样。

  同义 obvious, evident(a. 明显的)

  要点 apparent在文中通常起强调的作用,比如:It was apparent that...这一句型。其副词形式apparently的出现频率也比较高,意为“显然地,明显地”,如:Apparently, the most obvious reason is...

  approximate v. 接近,近似[?'prɑ:ksim?t]a. 大约的

  例句 1. The approximate range of the circadian rhythm of horseshoe crabs is 22.2 to 25.5 hours. 鲎类生理节律的大致范围是22.2小时至25.5小时。

  2. It was the Greeks that first calculated the approximate distance around the circumference of the Earth. 希腊人首先计算出了地球圆周的近似距离。

  同义 proximity(n. 接近,邻近)

  要点 approximate的含义类似于about, ...or so,以及短语close to的用法。此外,approximate的副词形式approximately也十分常见,比如:Rainfall replaces approximately the amount of water lost through evaporation.

  assumption[]n. 假定,臆断;担任

  例句 1. One can make such an assumption that hands were stenciled palm downward — therefore a left hand stenciled palm upward might of course look as if it were a right hand. 人们可以做出这样的假设:制作手的模型时手掌是向下的——因此一个手掌向上的左手模型看起来肯定就和右手一样。

  2. These critics were making a common assumption that the technological inadequacies of the earlier attempts would occur again invariably. 这些批评家做出了一个共同的假设——早期尝试中技术缺乏的现象一定会再次出现。

  belong[]v. 属于,应归入;适应

  例句 In the sixteenth century, fruits and vegetables were only to be found in gardens belonging to the wealthy. 在16世纪,水果和蔬菜只有在属于富人的花园里才能看见。

  派生 belonging(n. 所有物)

  briefly[]ad. 暂时地;简要地

  例句 1. The anthropologists summarized the process of perceiving it briefly. 人类学家简明扼要地概括了领会这一点的过程。

  2. A search of sedimentary deposits from the Cretaceous to the Tertiary periods reveals that there is a dramatic increase in the abundance of iridium briefly and precisely at this boundary. 一项对从白垩纪到第三纪时期的沉淀物的研究显示,铱元素的含量恰好在这个临界点上出现了短暂的激增。

  compare[]v. 比较,相比,对比 n. 比较

  搭配 compare with 与…比较,对照;compare to 比喻为,把…比作;without compare 无与伦比

  例句 1. Compared with urban areas, the population and size of villages were relatively small. 与城市相比,乡村的人口数量和规模都较小。

  2. Deserts have large amounts of groundwater when compared to the amounts that lakes and rivers hold in surface stores. 与湖泊和河流的表层储水相比,沙漠包含大量的地下水。

  3. Compared with the lunar space suits, Martian space suits just need smaller air tanks; and the elbow and knee areas will also be altered to allow freer movements. 与登月的太空服相比,火星的太空服需要更小的气罐,而且为了使穿着时活动更加自如,其肘部和膝部的设计也要有所修改。

  派生 comparable(a. 可比较的)

  continuous[]a. 继续不断的;不断延伸的

  例句 1. The probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases if we have frequent and continuous contact. 如果我们频繁而连续地接触,我们建立初级群体联系的可能性就会增大。

  2. These conditions are often found on the ocean floors where the amount of shelled invertebrates is abundant and are covered by the continuous rain of sedimentary particles. 这样的条件在洋底十分常见,那里有壳的无脊椎动物的数量很多,而且被不断落下的沉积颗粒所覆盖。

  3. In spite of the invasions and occasional foreign rule, China has one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. 尽管有被入侵和偶尔被外国统治的经历,中国仍拥有世界上最为源远流长的文化。

  conversely  ad. 相反地;颠倒地

  例句 Hearing the stories may lead preschoolers to encode aspects of events that allow them to form memories they can access when they grow up; conversely, improved encoding of what they hear may help them remember the stories and therefore make the stories more useful for remembering future events. 听这些故事会使学龄前的儿童为事件的不同方面编码,这样他们就可以形成记忆,并在长大后回想起来;相反,如果改善他们所听内容的编码方式也许会帮助他们更好地记住故事,这样这些故事在帮助他们记忆未来的事件时会更加有用。

  corresponding[]a. 一致的;相应的;通讯的

  例句 1. Archaeologists confirm there was a corresponding shift in populations toward the south and west. 考古学家证实这里曾相应出现人口向南部和西部迁移的情况。

  2. As geologists mapped glacial deposits in the late nineteenth century, they realized that there were several layers of drift and the lower ones were corresponding to earlier ice ages. 正如地理学家在19世纪晚期绘制的冰川沉积图那样,他们逐渐认识到有许多漂流层,最低的那些层是和早期冰川的时间段一致的。

  同义 consistent(a. 一致的)

  decrease[]v. 减少[]n. 减少(量)

  例句 1. From 1970 to 1986, rainfall in the area decreased from 1,000 millimeters to 650 millimeters per annum, while above-average temperatures accelerated the evapotranspiration rate. 1970到1986年期间,这个地区的降雨量从每年1000毫米下降到650毫米,而高于平均水平的温度提高了蒸散率。

  2. Once sleep is fully obtained, there is an increase of carbon dioxide and a decrease of oxygen level in the blood. 一旦进入熟睡状态,血液中的二氧化碳水平会上升,而同时氧的水平会下降。

  3. He believes the clothing prices will decrease even further. 他认为服装的价格会进一步下降。

  同义 diminish, reduce(v. 减少)

  反义 increase(n./v. 增加)

  要点 decrease通常用于描述数量、水平、价格的下降,比如:The price decreased by 15%.

  detached[]a. 单独的;冷漠的;客观的

  例句 One necessary condition for the development of theater seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. 戏剧发展的一个必要条件似乎是要以略微客观的观点来看待人类的问题。

  devoid[]a. 全无的

  例句 1. Since the raising of most crops necessitates the prior removal of the natural vegetation, the land devoid of a natural plant cover becomes susceptible to wind and water erosion. 由于大多数作物的种植都需要预先去除天然植被,因此没有了天然植被的土地很容易受到风和水的侵蚀。

  2. The hot air is devoid of even the slightest amount of moisture. 热空气中没有一点水汽。

  diminish[]v.(使)变少,变小;降低

  例句 Under this circumstance, the destructive effects of bacteria are diminished. 在这种情况下,细菌的破坏性降低了。

  同义 debase, devalue(v. 降低重要性);decrease[v.(使)变少]

  directly[di'rektli]ad. 径直地;立即;正好地

  例句 1. In most areas of the plain, rainwater was absorbed directly into the porous rock. 在大部分平原地区,降水直接被多孔岩石吸收了。

  2. As long as the bees could see the Sun, they went directly to their nest no matter how the surroundings were altered. 只要蜜蜂能看见太阳,那么无论周围的环境如何改变,它们都能直接找到蜂巢。

  3. For the heat island to be stretched along the course of major rivers, large waterways typically have a warming effect on the air directly above them. 对于沿着主要河道延伸的热岛,大型水道对其正上方的空气有明显的升温效应。

  distinctive[]a. 出众的;有特色的

  搭配 distinctive flavor 独特的味道

  例句 1. Mars has large-scale runoff and outflow channels, and the distinctive features suggest there were once large quantities of liquid water on Mars. 火星有大规模的径流渠和泄水渠,这些区别性的特征暗示了火星上曾经有大量的液态水。

  2. Oil paint can be combined with turpentine, white spirit or various oils to achieve different effects, which gives a distinctive depth of color but can take a long time to dry. 油画颜料可以与松节油、石油溶剂或其他不同的油结合以实现不同的效果,这样可以呈现出与众不同的颜色深度,但需要很长时间来让画变干。

  要点 distinctive在托福阅读中出现的次数较多,一般用来描述事物的显著特点,如:distinctive form of pastoralism“有特色的田园主义风格”。要注意的是这些特点可能都是作者着重强调的。

  drastic[]a. 剧烈的,猛烈的,激烈的

  例句 1. In general, it is believed that the mass extinction was caused by drastic environmental changes that followed meteorite impacts or massive volcanic eruptions. 一般来说,人们相信这次大灭绝是由于陨星冲击和剧烈的火山岩迸发之后的剧烈环境变化引起的。

  2. This form of life is not able to make such a drastic change in lifestyle. 这种生命形式无法在生活方式上做出如此剧烈的改变。

  drastically[]ad. 激烈地;彻底地

  例句 1. Should another ice age occur, sea level would decline drastically. 如果另一个冰河时代出现,那么海平面将会剧烈下降。

  2. The cordgrass has been spreading slowly and steadily along the coast, crowding out the native plants and drastically altering the landscape by trapping sediment. 带状草地已经缓慢而稳定地沿着海岸蔓延,排挤了当地的植物并扎根于沉积物中,彻底改变了地貌。

  要点 托福阅读文章中常用drastically表示“大幅度地,猛烈地”等词义,与之意思相近的单词是severely“严重地”,两者都可以强调变化之大或事态之严重。

  elemental[]a. 基本的;自然力的;元素的

  例句 Nitrogen is a gas in its elemental state, and the plants normally absorb it from the soil as nitrate ions. 氮元素的基本状态是气体,而植物通常会吸收来自土壤中硝酸根离子形式的氮元素。

  enduring[]a. 持久的,持续的

  搭配 enduring memories 持久的记忆

  例句 When hearing stories, infants and toddlers may form enduring memories in spite of their physiological immaturity. 听到故事的时候,尽管在生理上尚未成熟,婴儿和学步时期的儿童或许会形成持久的记忆。

  ensue[]v. 继而发生,接着发生

  搭配 ensue from 接着…发生

  例句 1. The rapid expansion of agriculture which ensued had changed the economy of the region, especially during the 1950s. 随后发展迅猛的农业改变了这个地区的经济状况,尤其在20世纪50年代这段时间。

  2. If the fire couldn't be extinguished, a disaster would ensue. 如果火没能被扑灭,灾难就会随之发生。

  要点 ensue可以用在条件句中,描述随之而来的后果,如:If..., ...will ensue. 另外,ensue的现在分词ensuing可以作为形容词使用,表示“接着发生的”。

  equivalent[]a. 相同的;相当的 n. 对等物

  例句 1. The calotype could be made in series, and thus it was seen as the equivalent of an etching or an engraving. 光力摄影法可以成系列制作,因此可以被看做蚀刻画或雕刻的等价物。

  2. American's children stories are not the same as their British equivalents. 美国的儿童故事与英国的儿童故事并不相同。

  同义 identical(a. 相同的);interchangeable(a. 相当的)

 


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