《新概念英语》第四册第41课:训练大象

2012-07-26 21:09:09   Tag:

新概念英语

 
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《新概念英语》第四册第41课:训练大象:First listen and then answer the following question.听录音,然后回答以下问题。At what point does the training of a captive wild elephant begin?

《新概念英语》第四册第41课MP3(英音)

《新概念英语》第四册第41课MP3(美音)

《新概念英语》第四册第41课 Training elephants 训练大象 


First listen and then answer the following question.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
At what point does the training of a captive wild elephant begin?

【课文】
Two main techniques have been used for training elephants, which we may call respectively the tough and the gentle. The former method simply consists of setting an elephant to work and beating him until he does what is expected of him. Apart from any moral considerations this is a stupid method of training, for it produces a resentful animal who at a later stage may well turn man-killer. The gentle method requires more patience in the early stages, but produces a cheerful, good-tempered elephant who will give many years of loyal service.
The first essential in elephant training is to assign to the animal a single mahout who will be entirely responsible for the job. Elephants like to have one master just as dogs do, and are capable of a considerable degree of personal affection. There are even stories of half-trained elephant calves who have refused to feed and pined to death when by some unavoidable circumstance they have been deprived of their own trainer. Such extreme cases must probably be taken with a grain of salt, but they do underline the general principle that the relationship between elephant and mahout is the key to successful training.
The most economical age to capture an elephant for training is between fifteen and twenty years, for it is then almost ready to undertake heavy work and can begin to earn its keep straight away. But animals of this age do not easily become subservient to man, and a very firm hand must be employed in the early stages. The captive elephant, still roped to a tree, plunges and screams every time a man approaches, and for several days will probably refuse all food through anger and fear. Sometimes a tame elephant is tethered nearby to give the wild one confidence, and in most cases the captive gradually quietens down and begins to accept its food. The next stage is to get the elephant to the training establishment, a ticklish business which is achieved with the aid of two tame elephants roped to the captive on either side.
When several elephants are being trained at one time, it is customary for the new arrival to be placed between the stalls of two captives whose training is already well advanced. It is then left completely undisturbed with plenty of food and water so that it can absorb the atmosphere of its new home and see that nothing particularly alarming is happening to its companions. When it is eating normally, its own training begins. The trainer stands in front of the elephant holding a long stick with a sharp metal point. Two assistants, mounted on tame elephants, control the captive from either side, while others rub their hands over his skin to the accompaniment of a monotonous and soothing chant. This is supposed to induce pleasurable sensations in the elephant, and its effects are reinforced by the use of endearing epithets. such as'ho! my son', or 'ho! my father', or 'my mother', according to the age and sex of the captive. The elephant is not immediately susceptible to such blandishments, however, and usually lashes fiercely with its trunk in all directions. These movements are controlled by the trainer with the metal-pointed stick, and the trunk eventually becomes so sore that the elephant curls it up and seldom afterwards uses it for offensive purposes.
RICHARD CARRINGTON Elephants

【参考译文】
驯象有两种主要的方法,我们分别称之为强硬法和温柔法。强硬法就是驱使象去干活,把它打顺从为止。且不说道义问题,这本身就是一种愚蠢的训练方法,因为这种方法训练会使动物反感,在以后某个时期可能会变成伤人的动物。温柔法要求在最初阶段保持较大的耐心,但这种方法可以训练出性情愉快、脾气温顺,能忠实为人服务多年的大象。
驯象中至关重要的是指派一名专门的驯象员,全面负责这项工作。大象和狗一样,喜欢有一个专一的主人,而且会对主人产生相当深厚的私人感情。甚至有这样的故事:训练了一半的小象,由于不可避免的情况与他们的主人分离后,竟拒绝吃食,消瘦至死。这种极端的事例虽不可全信,但强调了一项基本原则,象和驯象员之间的关系是驯象成功与否的关健。
捕捉15至20岁之间年龄的大象进行驯象最为经济。 这个年龄的象差不多已能干重活,可以很快挣回饲养它的开支。但这个年龄的象不易驯服,因此开始阶段需要有一位强有力的老手。捕来拴在树上的大象,每当有人走近它时,就会向前猛冲并发出尖叫,甚至一连几天都由于愤怒和恐惧而拒绝进食。有时,把一头已驯服的象拴在旁边能给野象以信心。在大多数情况下,刚缚来的象会慢慢静下来,接着开始吃食。下一步就是把象带到训练场所,这是一件棘手的事,需要在它两侧拴上两头驯服的大象才能完成。
几只象同时训练时,通常是把新到的安置在两头训练得很好的大象的象厩中间,然后给它以充足的食物和水,一定不要惊扰它,以便让他能适应新居的气氛,并且看到自己的同伴身上没有发生让自己担惊受怕的事。当它进食正常了,训练就开始。驯练员手持一根有锋利金属尖头的长棒,站在象前。两位助手骑在驯服的象的背上,从两侧控制新捕的象,其他人唱着单调的歌声用手抚摸象的皮肤。据说这是为了使象产生愉快的感觉,为了加强这种效果,人们还按象的年龄性别,给以亲切的外号,如“嗬!我的孩子”、“嗬!我的爸爸”、“嗬!我的妈妈”。然而大象不会立刻被这些讨好的话感动,而往往是用鼻子朝各个方向猛烈地甩动。训练员要用有锋利金属尖的长棒控制它的这种举动,象鼻子最后疼得卷了起来,以后它就很少用鼻子去进攻了。

【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
technique n. 技术
tough adj. 强硬的
resentful adj. 忿恨不满的
assign v. 分配,指派
mahout n. 驯象人
calf n. 幼仔
pine v. 消瘦
underline v. 着重说明,强调
keep n. 生计
subservient adj. 屈从的
plunge v. 向前冲
tame adj. 养驯服了的
tether v. (用绳)拴
ticklish adj. 难对付的,棘手的
alarming adj. 引起惊恐的
accompaniment n. 伴奏
soothe v. 镇定
chant n. 单调的歌
reinforce v. 加强
endearing adj.惹人喜爱的
epithet n. 称呼
susceptible adj. 易受感动的
blandishment n. 奉承
lash v. 猛烈地甩
curl v. 使卷曲

【课文注释】
1.the tough 强硬法
the gentle 温柔法

2.resentful adj.愤懑不满的
例句:Some Americans are resentful, so they must find an opportunity to vent their anger.
一些美国人心中不满,就要找个机会来发泄。

3.pine to death 消瘦至死
pine v.
①消瘦,憔悴
例句:He pined away after his daughter died.
他的女儿死后,他逐渐变得憔悴了。
②渴望
例句:Alone,a lonely stranger in a foreign land,I pine for kinsfolk doubly on a holiday.
独在异乡为异客每逢佳节倍思亲
n.松树

4.by some unavoidable circumstance 由于某些不可避免的情况

5.deprive of 剥夺, 使失去 ... (权利)
例句:If you don't drive carefully, I shall be obliged to deprive you of your license.
如果您不谨慎驾驶,我将不得不没收您的执照。
Too many trees round a house deprive it of light and air.
房屋四周树木太多会使室内光线和空气都感不足。
6.with a grain of salt 有保留地

7.underline v.着重说明,强调
例句:Strikes by prison officers underline the need for reform in our gaols.
监狱工作人员罢工一事,突出地表明我们的监狱制度需要改革。
Those words are underlined in the English book.
那本英语书中有些单词下画着线进行强调。

8.subservient adj.屈从的
例句:People shall not be regarded as subservient to the economic system.
不应把人的因素看成是经济体制的附庸。

9.a very firm hand 一个强有力的人

10.quiet down
例句:He was very angry, but he has quieted down now.
他刚才很生气,但现在已经平静下来了。

11.ticklish adj. 难对付的, 易怒的, 怕痒的
例句:A ticklish matter.
一件棘手的事

12.with the aid of 在......帮助下

13.customary adj. 习惯的, 惯例的
例句:That's his customary shortcoming.
那是他一个习惯的毛病。
It's customary to give people gifts on their birthdays.
给人送生日礼物是惯常的事。
For once, she lost/dropped her customary reserve and became quite lively.
这次,她一反平素的沉默寡言,表现得很活跃。
【词义辨析】
usual, customary, habitual, conventional, regular 这些形容词均有“通常的,惯常的”之意。
usual: 普通用词,概念广泛。指经常发生或意料中的事,既可指自然发生的现象,也可指按个人习惯或惯例而做的事。
[b]customary: 指特定的个人或群体的平常习惯,或习俗性的行为。
habitual: 指按个人习惯反复发生的事情。侧重经常性、习惯性。
conventional: 语气强,指遵守已成习惯的事情,强调符合惯例,由人们普遍认可。
regular: 着重遵守约定俗成的规则。

14.This is supposed to 据说......
例句:This is supposed to be an off season for vegetables but you seem to have enough
here.
按说现在是蔬菜的淡季, 可是你们这里供应还不错。

15.susceptible adj.易受感动的
例句:Children are more susceptible than adults.
孩子比成人易受外界的影响。
He's so susceptible that she easily gained his affection.
他易受感情影响,所以她很轻易就得到了他的爱。


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