【新概念英语四】第8课 :贸易标准

2012-07-25 14:33:33   Tag:

新概念英语

 
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【新概念英语四】第8课 :贸易标准 :First listen and then answer the following question. 听录音,然后回答以下问题。 What makes trading between rich countries difficult?

 《新概念英语》第四册第8课MP3(英音)

《新概念英语》第四册第8课MP3(美音)

【新概念英语四】第8课 Trading standards 贸易标准 

First listen and then answer the following question.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。

What makes trading between rich countries difficult?

【课文】
Chickens slaughtered in the United States, claim officials in Brussels, are not fit to grace European tables. No, say the American: our fowl are fine, we simply clean them in a different way. These days, it is differences in national regulations, far more than tariffs, that put sand in the wheels of trade between rich countries. It is not just farmers who are complaining. An electric razor that meets the European Union's safety standards must be approved by American testers before it can be sold in the United States, and an American-made dialysis machine needs the EU's okay before is hits the market in Europe.

As it happens, a razor that is safe in Europe is unlikely to electrocute Americans. So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? Politicians agree, in principle, so America and the EU have been trying to reach a deal which would eliminate the need to double-test many products. They hope to finish in time for a trade summit between America and the EU on May 28th. Although negotiators are optimistic, the details are complex enough that they may be hard-pressed to get a deal at all.

Why? One difficulty is to construct the agreements. The Americans would happily reach one accord on standards for medical devices and then hammer out different pacts covering, say, electronic goods and drug manufacturing. The EU -- following fine continental traditions -- wants agreement on general principles, which could be applied to many types of products and perhaps extended to other countries.
From: The Economist, May 24th, 1997

【New words and expressions 生词和短语】
slaughter v. 屠宰
fit adj. 适合
grace v. 给...增光
tariff n. 关税
standard n. 标准
dialysis n. 分离,分解;透析,渗析
electrocute v. 使触电身亡
eliminate v. 消灭
accord n. 协议
device n. 仪器,器械
hammer out v. 推敲
pact n. 合同,条约,公约

【课文注释】
1.Chickens slaughtered in...to grace European tables.在这句话中引用了布鲁塞尔官员的评论,却没有放在引号之中。这种方式常用语报刊文章,对读者的直接影响更大。在claim officials in Brussels中,动词claim置于名词前。

2.slaughter,屠杀,杀戮。
例句:Thousands were slaughtered by the invading army.
数以千计的人被侵略军杀害了。

在运动比赛中,可以用slaughter表示惨败。
例句:The total slaughter of the home team disappointed all fans.
主队的惨败让所有球迷失望不已。

3.it is differences in national regulations...between rich countries,是各国管理条例上的差异,而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。
这是一个it引导的强调句。强调句句型:It is...that...(强调人或事物)/ It is...who...(强调人)。在通常情况下,去掉这个句型,句子依然是成立的——这是判断一个句子是否为强调结构的重要标志。

例句:It was my mother who finally called the police.
最终报警的是我母亲。

去掉强调结构:My mother finally called the police.意思没有变,只是语气减弱了。
特别注意:强调句中that/who不可省。

4.put/throw sand in the wheels of,阻碍,阻挠。
例句:The terrorist attack put sand in the wheels of the ongoing peace talk.
恐怖袭击阻挠了正在进行的和平谈判的进程。

5.So, ask businesses on both sides of the Atlantic, why have two lots of tests where one would do? 这是另一个没有引号的直接引语的例子。注意why have two...do中的语序,这是非常口语化的直接引语的语序。

6.hard-pressed
If you will be hard-pressed to do something, you will have great difficulty doing it.做某事很困难。
例句:This year the airline will be hard-pressed to make a profit.
今年,航空公司想要盈利很困难。

7.apply to,适用于、应用于。
例句:The laws apply to everyone irrespective of race, creed or colour.
法律适用于所有的人,不分种族、 信仰或肤色。

apply for,申请。
例句:Don't apply for that job: you're in danger of overreaching yourself.
不要申请那份工作,以免有不自量力之嫌。

8.extend to,拓展至、延伸至,可表示空间、时间、范围、领域上的延伸。
例句:It might be possible to extend the technique to other crop plants.
或许有可能将该技术拓展应用到其它作物的种植上。

【参考译文】
布鲁塞尔的官员说,在美国屠宰的鸡不适于用来装点欧洲的餐桌。不,美国人说,我们的家禽很好,只是我们使用了另一种清洗方式。当前,是各国管理条例上的差异,而不是关税阻碍了发达国家之间的贸易。并不仅仅是农民在抱怨。一把符合欧洲联盟安全标准的电动剃须刀必须得到美国检测人员的认可,方可在美国市场上销售;而美国制造的透析仪也要得到欧盟的首肯才能进入欧洲市场。

碰巧在欧洲使用安全的剃须刀不大可能使美国人触电身亡,因此,大西洋两岸的企业都在问,当一套测试可以解决问题时,为什么需要两套呢?政治家在原则上同意了, 因此,美国和欧洲一直在寻求达成协议,以便为许多产品取消双重检查。他们希望尽早达成协议,为5月28日举行的美国和欧洲贸易的最高通级会议作准备。然谈判代表持乐观态度,但协议细节如此复杂,他们所面临的困难很可能使他们无法取得一致。

为什么呢?困难之一是起草这些协议。美国人很愿意就医疗器械的标准达成一个协议,然后推敲出不同的合同,用以涵盖 -- 比如说 -- 电子产品和药品的生产。欧洲人遵循优良的大陆传统,则希望就普遍的原则取得一致,而这些原则适用于许多不同产品,同时可能延伸到其它国家。

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