2010年高考英语试题分类汇编---阅读理解(四)

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2010年高考英语试题分类汇编---阅读理解(四):To err is human. To blame the other guy is even more human. Common sense is not all that common. Why tell the truth when you can come up with a good excuse?

D
To err is human. To blame the other guy is even more human.
Common sense is not all that common.
Why tell the truth when you can come up with a good excuse?
These three popular misquotes(戏谑的引语)are meant to be jokes, and yet they tell us a lot about human nature . To err, or to make mistakes, is indeed a part of being human, but it seems that most people don’t want to accept the responsibility for the problem. Perhaps it is the natural thing to do . The original quote about human nature went like this:” To err is human, to forgive, divine(神圣的). ”This saying mirrors an deal people should be forgiving of others’ mistakes. Instead, we tend to do the opposite –find someone else to pass the blame on to. However, taking responsibility for something that went wrong is a making of great maturity.
Common sense is what we call clear thought. Having common sense means having a good general plan that will make things work well, and it also means staying with the plan. Common sense tells you that you take an umbrella out into a rainstorm, but you leave the umbrella home when you hear a weather forecast for sunshine.Common sense does not seem to be common for large organizations, because there are so many things going on that one person cannot be in charge of everything. People say that in a large company,”the right hand does not know what the left hand is doing. ”
And what is wrong with a society that thinks that making up a good excuse is like creating a work of art? One of the common problems with making excuses is that people, especially young people. get the idea that it’s okay not to be totally honest all the time. There is a corollary(直接推论)to that: if good excuse is “good”even if it isn’t honest, then where is the place of the truth?
51. According to tile passage, which of following seems the most human?
A. To search for truth. B. To achieve one’s ideal
C. To make fun of others’mistakes.D. To criticize others for one’s own error.
51. D. 细节理解题。引言后第二段最后一句话可知:一个人负责公司的全部工作属于非常识。
52.According to the author, what is a sign of a man’s maturity?
A.Doing things his own way.
B.Bearing responsibility for his mistakes.
C.Making as few mistakes as possible.
D.Thinking seriously about his wrongdoing.
52. B. 细节理解题。根据第四段最后一句话However, taking responsibility for something that went wrong is a making of great maturity. 可得出答案。
53.Which of the following is NOT based on common sense?
A.A man tries to take charge of everything in a large company.
B.A student goes out with an umbrella in stormy weather.
C.A company’s next move follows a good plan.
D.A lawyer acts on fine judgments.
53. A. 细节判断题。引言后第二段最后一句话可知:一个人负责公司的全部工作属于非常识。
54. What is the author’s opinion about a good excuse?
A. Making a good excuse is sometimes a better policy.
B. Inventing a good excuse needs creative ideas.
C. A good excuse is as rewarding as honesty.
D. Bitter truth is better than a good excuse.
54. D. 推理判断题。从全文最后一句话直接得到答案“追求真理比寻找理由更为重要”
55. What would be the best title for his passage?
A. A Mirror of Human Nature B. To Blame or to Forgive
C. A Mark of Maturity D. Truth or Excuse
55. A. 主旨大意题。从全文和引言后第一段倒数第二句可知文章标题:人性的镜子。
引言后第一段第三句可知:批评别人的错误

When Dan Shaw gets up from the sofa in his home, Cuddles is never far away. When he wants to go outside, he doesn’t take Cuddles out for walk—Cuddles takes him for a walk. Cuddles is clearly no ordinary family pet. It is a two-foot-high miniature horse and serves as the guiding eyes of Shaw, who is blind.
When Shaw lost his sight, his wife suggested he apply for a guide dog. Shaw, an animal lover, said he couldn’t bear to part with a dog (which usually lives about eight to ten years) and get used to a new one, perhaps several times in his life.
Then Shaw heard of a program about the tiny guide horses. He learned that the horse possess many qualities that that make them an excellent choice for guiding people. They are clean friendly, smart and have great memories. They can be trained to remain calm in noisy and crowded places. Best of all, they live for 25-25years, which would enable Shaw to have the same guide companion for most or all of his life.
Shaw immediately applied to be and was accepted as the first person to receive a guide horse. The instant he met Cuddles, he knew he was making the right choice. Then he began his training.
Through training ,Shaw and Cuddles learned to find way on busy streets, step over curbs(便道沿儿)and find elevator buttons. Cuddles even demonstrated(显示)its ability to step in front of Shaw and block him, to prevent him from walking into a dangerous situation. The little horse also expertly led Shaw through busy shopping malls. They got along without any difficulties. Now Shaw is confident that Cuddles will change his life for the better.
56. What’s the meaning of the underlined word “miniature” in Paragraph 1?(No more than 2 words)
57. Why didn’t Shaw want to choose a dog as his guide? (No more than 15 words)
58. What does Paragraph 3 mainly tell us? (No more than 10 words)
59. How does Shaw feel about his future life with the help of Cuddles? (No more than 10 words)
60. In your opinion, what is the ideal relationship between man and animals? (No more than 20 words)
答案解析:
56. 第三段第一个字TINY. 从构词法也可判断 Tiny \Little\small\Very small.
57. 第二段第二句话可知
A dog’s life is short and Shaw could not bear to part with it.
58. 第三段第二句话可知
The Tiny, horses possess have many good qualities to guide people.
On the Tiny horses possess\ have many qualities to be ideal guides,
59. 文章最后一句话可知He feels that his future life will he better/easier,
60. 属于概括题,导盲马和主人之间属于互相帮助的关系。
They should be good friends and help each other, Or: They should get along as friends and take care of each other.

A
I grew up in a house where the TV was seldom turned on and with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves, most of my childhood was spent on books I could get hold of. In fact, I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing and books unbelievably powerful in shaping perspectives (观点) by creating worlds we could step into, take part. in. and live in.
With this unshakable belief, I, at. fourteen, decided to become a writer. Here too, reading became useful. Every writer starts off knowing that he has something to say, but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his own voice by reading widely and discovering which parts of the writers he agrees or disagrees with, or agrees with so strongly that it reshapes his own world. He cannot write without loving to read, because only through reading other people’s writing can one discover what works, what doesn’t and, in the end, together with lots of practice, what voice he has.
Now I am in college, and have come to realize how important it is to read fiction (文学作品).As a. law student, my reading is in fact limited to subject matter—the volume (量) of what I have to read for classes every week means there is little time to read anything else. Such reading made it all the clearer to me that I live in a very small part in this great place called life. Reading fiction reminds me that there is life beyond my own. It allows me to travel across the high seas and along the Silk Road, all from the comfort of my own armchair, to experience, though secondhand, exciting experiences that I wouldn't necessarily be able to have in my lifetime.

41. What can be inferred about the author as a child?

A. He never watched TV.
B. He read what he had to.
C. He found reading unbelievable.
D. He considered reading part of his life.
42. The underlined word "voice" in the second paragraph most probably means “ ”.
A. an idea
B. a sound quality
C. a way of writing
D. a world to write about
43. What effect does reading have on the author?
A. It helps him to realize his dream.
B. It opens up a wider world for him.
C. It makes his college life more interesting.
D. It increases his interest in worldwide travel.
44. Which of the following can be the best title of this text?

A. Why do I read?
B. How do I read?
C. What do I read?
D. When do I read?
语篇解读:本篇文章是记叙文。作者通过自己的亲身体验,讲述读书使人形成自己的独立观点,读书使人开扩视野的重要作用。
41. 答案:D
考点::细节理解题
解析:根据首段第一二句, “I grew up in a house… with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves…. I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing”可知作者是在一个以书为伴的环境中长大的,读书像呼吸那样已经成为生活必需。
42. 答案:C
考点::词义推测题。
解析:根据文中 “. . . but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his own …”可以推断出voice所表达的意思是“写作方式”。
43. 答案B
考点::细节理解题
解析:由文章的最后一句:“It allows me to travel across the high seas and along the Silk Road, all from the comfort of my own armchair, to experience, though secondhand, exciting experiences that I wouldn't necessarily be able to have in my lifetime. ”可得出答案
44. 答案:A
考点::主旨大意题。
解析:文章作者主要以自己的亲身体验讲述读书的重要性。因此Why do I read?“我为什么读书?”作题目最佳。

B
Boiler rooms are often dirty and steamy, but this one is clean and cool. Fox Point is a very new47-unit living building in South Bronx, one of the city’s poorest areas. Two-thirds of the people living there are formerly (以前) homeless people, whose rent is paid by the government. The rest are low-income families. The boiler room has special equipment, which produces energy for electricity and heat. It reuses heat that would otherwise be lost to the air, reducing carbon emissions(碳排放)while also cutting costs.
Fox Point is operated by Palladia, a group that specializes in providing housing and services to needy, people. Palladia received support from Enterprise Community Partners (ECP), which helps build affordable housing by providing support to housing developers.
ECP has created national standards for healthy, environmentally (环境方面) clever and affordable homes which are called, the Green Communities Standards. These standards include water keeping, energy saving and the use of environmentally friendly building materials. Meeting the standards increases housing construction costs by 2%, which is rapidly paid back by lower running costs. Even the positioning of a window to get most daylight can help save energy.
Michael. Bloomberg, New York's mayor, plans to create 165,000 affordable housing units for500,000 New Yorkers. Almost 80% of New York City’s greenhouse-gas emissions come from buildings, and 40% of those are caused, by housing. . So he recently announced that the city’s Department of Housing and Preservation and Development (DHPD) , whose duty is to develop and keep the city’s supply of affordable housing, will require all its new projects to follow ECP’s green standards.
Similar measures have been taken by other cities such as Cleveland and Denver, but New York’s DHPD is the largest city developer of affordable housing in the country.
45. What is the purpose of describing the boiler room in the first paragraph?

A. To explain the measures the city takes to care for poor people.
B. To suggest that affordable housing is possible in all areas.
C. To show how the environment-friendly building works.
D. To compare old and new boiler rooms.
46. What is an advantage of the buildings meeting the Green Communities Standards?
A. Lower running costs.
B. Costing less in construction.
C. Less air to be lost in hot days.
D. Better prices for homeless people.
47. It can be learned from the text that,
A. New York City is seriously polluted
B. people’s daily life causes many carbon emissions in New York City
C. a great number of people in New York City don't have houses to live in
D. some other cities have developed more affordable housing than New York City
48. What is the main purpose of this text?
A. To call on people to pay more attention to housing problems.
B. To prove that some standards are needed for affordable housing.
C. To ask society to help homeless people and low-income families.
D. To introduce healthy, environmentally clever-and affordable housing.

语篇解读:本篇文章为科技说明文。作者以Fox Point居住群的boiler rooms为切入点,阐述此类房子的环保节能的优点,以及各城市特别是纽约队建造此类建筑的积极响应。
45. 答案:C
考点::作者的写作意图
解析:从第一段最后两句,作者描述开水房仅是从一个侧面展示整个建筑群的节能,环保,可以得出答案。
46. 答案:A
考点::细节理解
解析:依据文章第三段倒数第二句:Meeting the standards increases housing construction costs by 2%, which is rapidly paid back by lower running costs. 可得到答案。句意为“达到这一标准会将建筑成本提高2%,但很快会被它的低成本运行成本补回”
47. 答案:B
考点::细节理解
解析:依据文章第四段第二句:Almost 80% of New York City’s greenhouse-gas emissions come from buildings, and 40% of those are caused, by housing. . 可得出答案
48. 答案:D
考点::作者的写作目的
解析:本文主要让读者了解这类健康、环保、经济类住房。

D
Somali pirates(海盗) robbed three Thai fishing ships with 77 sailors on board nearly l,200 Miles off the Somali coast,the farthest-off-shore attack to date,an officer said Tuesday.
Pirates have gone farther south and east in answer to increased patrols(巡逻)by warships off the Somali shore. The robbing of the three ships Sunday was about 600 miles outside the normal operation area for the international force,said a spokesman.
The spokesman said the attack so far out at sea was a clear sign that the international patrols against pirates were having a “marked effect on pirate activity in the area”.
“Once they start attacking that far out,you’re not even really talking about the Somali basin or areas of water that have any connection with Somalia,” said an officer,Roger Middleton.“Once you’re that far out,it's just the Indian Ocean,and it means you’re looking at trade going from the Gulf to Asia,from Asia to South Africa. ”
"This is the farthest robbing to date.They are now operating near the Maldives and India,” said another officer.
The three ships--the MV Prantalay 11,12,and l 4—had 77 members on board in total.All of them are Thai, the spokesman said.Before the Sunday robbing,pirates held l l ships and 228 sailors.
Pirates have increased attacks over the past year in hopes。f catching more dollar payments. Because of increased patrols and defenses on board ships,the success rate(率)has gone down,though the number of successful attacks has stayed the same year over year.
53. The pirate attack reported in the text happened .
A.far out in the Indian Ocean
B.in the normal patrol area
C.near the Somali, coast
D.in the south of Africa
54.According to the text, which can best describe the situation of the pirate problems?
A.More goods on board are lost.
B.Pirate attacks happen in a larger area now.
C.The number of attacks has stayed the same these years.
D.Pirate attacks are as serious as before along the Somali coast.
55.Which is true about the warship patrols according to the text?
A.The patrols are of little effect.
B.The patrols are more difficult.
C.More patrols are quite necessary even in Asia.
D.The patrols only drive the pirates to other areas.
56.How many sailors were held by the pirates up to the time of the report?
A.228. B.77. C.383. D.305.
语篇分析:本篇文章为新闻报道类文体。报道索马里海盗周日抢劫三艘泰国渔船,并引用部分官员的话,让读者了解当前的索马里海盗的形势。
53. 答案:A
考点::细节理解
解析:由 “The robbing of the three ships Sunday was about 600 miles outside the normal operation area for the international force…”以及 “Once you’re that far out,it's just the Indian Ocean”句意为“这次海盗袭击发生在国际保卫队正常保护区域六百英里外”,“一旦你到了那么远,那就是印度洋了”可得出答案。
54. 答案:B
考点:: 主旨大意
解析:文章主要报道发生在周末的对泰国渔船的袭击,就此事引出索马里海盗的袭击已经超越国际保护队的正常护卫范围,而进入更深的海域。
55. 答案:B
考点::细节理解
解析:依据… patrols against pirates were having a “marked effect on pirate activity in the area”及 “Once you’re that far out,it's just the Indian Ocean,and it means you’re looking at trade going from the Gulf to Asia,from Asia to South Africa. ”可知巡逻明显见效,又有一旦再超过那么远,那就是印度洋,那就意味着你在看管从波斯湾到亚洲,从亚洲到南美洲的所有行线。可知应是巡逻难度加大了。
56.答案D考点::推理计算题。
解析:由文章首句Somali pirates robbed three Thai fishing ships with 77 sailors on board……及Before the Sunday robbing, pirates held 11 ships and 228 sailors. 可知到发报到为止,索马里海盗应劫持水手77+228=305人。

E
Fear plays no part in this latest problem.“I’m not afraid I'll lose my children.I won't lose my children. We live together, and nothing, nothing,” she repeats, her voice rising when speaking to John's lawyer, “will stop me from being with my children. A law? Year, right. Don't disturb me when it comes to my children. You are never going to win. If John wants to see them, I cannot stop him. He's their father¬¬—I want them to see him! However, his visit in his present condition will disturb the children's stable (稳定的) life.”
John, who has spent much of his time in California recently, has only hired a house for himself in Pennsylvania, according to his lawyer. "If he'd like to stick to a regular life, I'd be more than happy to do that," Jane says. "The best thing for any child of a divorced (离婚的) parent is a stable life. I want nothing more than for him to set up a stable life for himself, so that he can be part of making our children's lives more stable. "
While matters of money and care won't be settled for weeks, Jane hardly puts her life on hold. Last week the ABC network announced that Jane would return with her own show, Twist of Jane, in which she gives advice to other moms.Jane and her eight children will also return to ABC in a series of Jane Plus 8 specials showing them on various adventures.It’s a rest for Jane.who insists that she needs her new,busy life to provide for her family.“I have to lead such a life.and I’m thankful that I’ve built it to the top where now I can support my children.”she says.
And whether a bellicose(好斗的)dance judge or a bellicose former wife,Jane plans to keep 0n facing attacks on her. “Some people try to knock me down—only to make me more fierce,more protective,more determined to do better,”she says.“Go ahead,take me on.This will just make me stronger.”
57. According to Jane in the first paragraph,the low
A. can’t take her children away from her
B. can’t do anything with the case
C. will best settle the problem
D. will disturb her children
58. What does “to do that” refer to in the second paragraph?
A. To live with John.
B.To hire a house for John.
C.To allow John to see the children
D.To ask John to set up a regular life.
59. What does the underlined sentence in the third paragraph mean?
A.Jane’s life is very difficult.
B.Jane continues to live as usual.
C.Jane almost can’t control her lire
D.Jane works very hard to live a happy life.
60. Which word can best describe Jane? A. Proud.
B.Fierce.
C.Determined.
D.Independent
语篇解读:本文为记叙文。主要记叙Jane在和丈夫离婚后下决心面对一切困难,争取孩子的抚养权,并在婚后钱财和孩子抚养等问题短期内难以解决的情况下努力生活的故事。
57. 答案:C
考点::细节理解
解析:依据文章第一段第5,6句 “A law? Year, right. Don't disturb me when it comes to my children. You are never going to win. ”可知
58. 答案:C
解析:根据上一段的 “If John wants to see them…However, his visit in his present condition …”可知以John现在的状况不适合见孩子们,结合画线词所在句 “if he’d like to stick to a regular life”可以推断出如果John生活稳定了Jane允许他见孩子们。
59. 答案:B
考点::考查学生的推断能力
解析:依据第三段首句 “While matters of money and care won't be settled for weeks, Jane hardly puts her life on hold. ”此处while引导让步状语从句,意为“尽管钱和抚养的问题在几周内难以解决,……”划线部分因为Jane几乎不让生活受到影响。因此正确答案为B
60. 答案:C
考点::推理判断题。
解析: Jane面对一切压力,坚决要求孩子的抚养权;钱和孩子的抚养短期内不能解决的情况下,努力克服困难维持生活都表现了她的坚强决心。

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