英语写作常见错误(一)

2010-12-04 16:50:50   Tag:

英语学习方法

 
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英语写作常见错误(一):以下四种不完整句/句子片段在学生习作中最常见的是第一和第三种情况,即从属连词的使用会导致出错和增加细节进行说明时也容易出错。因此,在这两种情况下要特别谨慎以免出错。

请找出并改正下列各句中的错误:

  1) If Kim takes too long saying good-bye to her boyfriend. Her father will start flicking the porch light.Then he will come out with a flashlight.

  2) My phone doesn't ring. Instead, a light on it blinks. The reason for this being that I am partially deaf.

  3) To get to the bus station from here. You have to walk two blocks out of your way. The sidewalk istorn up because of construction work.

  4) Before a race, I eat starchy foods. Such as bread and spaghetti.

  5) Most love getting birthday presents. But hate writing thank-you notes.

  6) I dread going to parties, however, my husband loves meeting new people.

  7) Mario told everyone in the room to be quiet his favorite show was on.

  对于想要提高自己英语写作水平的学生来说,认识并且改正直至杜绝写作中的常见错误是非常重要的,因为一篇存在语言错误的文章是绝对称不上好文章的。英语写作中,就句子而言,最常见的错误有:不完整句、串句、主谓不一致、悬垂修饰语、错置修饰语以及错误排比等六种。其中,由于标点符号误用而导致的错误有不完整句、串句这两种。本期将主要分析这两种错误,其余四种常见错误下期再作分析。不完整句和串句与标点符号的使用有关,在学生的习作中也是出现频率最高的。以上练习中第1,2,3,4,5 句都有不完整句的错误存在,第6,7 两个句子都是串句,具体的改正方法下面分析部分将有详细的介绍。

  我们再来看一看第2期“写作教室”最后一个练习的参考答案及简单分析,这样可以对不完整句和串句有更深刻的认识:

  I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the mostcarefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, other moments, when I was deeplyfrightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and of getting lost. These fears were very real. Theycaused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

  Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared meso much. The streetlight outside or passing car lights would create shadows in my room, as a result, clotheshung over a chair taking on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains movewhen there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in daylight.My imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters on the prowl. Because darkness alwaysmade me feel so helpless, I would lie there motionless so that the "enemy" would not discover me.Another of my childhood fears was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Afterschool, all the buses lined up along the curb. I was terrified that I'd get on the wrong one. Scanning the buswindows for the faces of my friends, I'd also look to make sure that the bus driver was the same one I hadin the morning.

  现作简单分析:第一个错误是不完整句,因为从属连词when引导的从句不是一个完整的句子,它若在主句前则用逗号与主句相连接,若在主句后则可以直接与主句连接在一起而不用任何标点符号,在这里由于原句结构有一些复杂,所以用逗号相连接;第二个错误是串句,因为原文逗号之前的These fears were very real和逗号之后的They caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments都是完整的句子,它们之间如果只用逗号连接是不够的,应该用分号或句号连接;第三个错误是不完整句,因为这里有一个我们很熟悉的强调句结构it was ... that ...所以that scared me so much这个从句本身不能独立成为句子,必须与前半句合并在一起而且不用任何标点符号;第四个错误也是不完整句,因为句号后面的成分没有谓语动词而只有一个分词形式的动词taking,它是不能充当谓语动词的,因此这个部分整个只能充当前半句的一个状语,所以只用逗号连接;第五个错误与第二个错误相同是串句,逗号前后都是完整的句子,应该用分号或句号来连接;第六个错误又是不完整句,因为句号后的creating burglars and monsters on the prowl只是一个句子的状语成分,我们称之为伴随状语,它与之前的主句之间只能用逗号来连接;第七、第八两个错误的性质与第六个一样都是不完整句,因为从属连词because引导的状语从句不能独立存在,必须与主句连接,且它在主句之前,所以用逗号连接,especially on the way home from school也只是一个状语;第九个错误是一个串句,原文此处逗号之前和之后是两个完整的句子,应该用分号或句号连接才行;第十个错误又是不完整句,Scanning the bus windows for the faces of my friends在整个句子中只是充当伴随状语,不能独立成为句子,所以只能用逗号与之后的主句连接。

  从这几个错误的原因我们不难看出,标点符号尤其是逗号、分号、句号用得不对就会造成语法上的大错:不完整句和串句。在刚刚分析的练习中不完整句较多,在学生的习作中串句却更为常见一些。

  请再看来自学生习作中的两个错句例子,未经修改,其中可能还有其他的语法错误。

  1) 不完整句/句子片段(Incomplete Sentences / Sentence Fragments),如:For instance, when you see the pattern "I", if the teacher asks you what can you see. An uncultivatedchild may give you many different answers...

  2) 串句:逗号粘结及熔合句(Run-ons: Comma Splices & Fused Sentences),如:I stared at the dark blue sky with stars shining like diamonds, I felt the breeze softly kissing my cheek& I heard the pigeons flying back home.现对这两种常见的错误进行评析。

  1. 不完整句/句子片段

  之所以称这一类型的错误句子为不完整句或者句子片段,是因为它们要么缺主语,要么缺谓语动词,总之不完整;还有一些甚至只是一个状语(从句或者短语),亦即只是句子的一个部分,因此叫句子片段。英语中每一个完整的句子都有一个主语和一个谓语动词并且要表达一个完整的意思。缺少主语或谓语动词的或者不能表达一个完整的意思的句子都称为不完整的句子。以上学生的错误例句:For instance, when you see the pattern "I", if the teacher asks you what can you see. Anuncultivated child may give you many different answers... 问题在于when和if两个从属连词引导的从句被看成了完整的句子,事实上整个句子还缺乏一个主句,建议补充一个主句,改为:For instance,when you see the pattern "I" and the teacher asks you what you can see, what will you say? An uncultivatedchild may give many different answers...通常学生在四种情况下会写出不完整句:

  1)使用从属连词时,如文章起始练习部分的第一个句子就属于是这种错误,纠正这种错误的方法可以是将不完整的从句与前面或后面的主句合并成一个句子,如:If Kim takes too long sayinggood-bye to her boyfriend, her father will start flicking the porch light. Then he will come out with aflashlight. 这时要注意的是,当从句在前时,应在从句和主句之间加逗号。还有一种方法是将不完整句中的从属连词去掉,然后重新改写整个句子,如:Kim takes too long saying good-bye to herboyfriend and her father starts flicking the porch light. Then he comes out with a flashlight.

  2)使用-ing和to的结构时,如练习中第二、第三个句子:My phone doesn't ring. Instead, a light on it blinks. The reason for this being that I am partially deaf. / To get to the bus station from here. Youhave to walk two blocks out of your way. The sidewalk is torn up because of construction work. 这些错误的句子可以采用不同的方法来改正,a) 可以将不完整的成分与主句合并在一起,如: To get to thebus station from here, you have to walk two blocks out of your way. The sidewalk is torn up because ofconstruction work. 注意当不完整的结构出现在主句之前时,应该用逗号将它们与主句连接起来;b) 可以给不完整的部分增加主语并将动词从-ing形式变为正确的形式,如果错误的部分有主语,只是动词被错用为非谓语动词形式,即动词的分词形式和不定式形式,那么只要将它变为谓语动词的形式就行,如being变成谓语动词的形式就是am, is, are, was, were,以上错误例句就可以改为:My phone doesn't ring. Instead, a light on it blinks. The reason for this is that I am partially deaf.

  3)增加细节时,通常容易出错的词和短语有:also, especially, except, for example, like, including,such as等,如以上练习中第四个句子:Before a race, I eat starchy foods. Such as bread and spaghetti.再举两个典型的例子:Bob is taking a night course in auto mechanics. Also, one in plumbing. / Mikekeeps several pets in his room. Including a snake and a spider.这些句子中用such as, also, including等,原本是想作进一步或者补充说明的,但是这些词和短语所引导的只是一些名词性短语,不能独立成为句子。建议改正的方法可以是a) 将不完整的成分直接与前面的主句粘合在一起,如:Beforea race, I eat starchy foods such as bread and spaghetti. 也可以是b) 给不完整的成分加上主语和谓语动词使之完整,如:Bob is taking a night course in auto mechanics. Also, he is taking one in plumbing. 或者c) 将这一不完整的成分插入之前的句子中,如:Mike keeps several pets, including a snake and aspider, in his room. 这里要注意,当不完整的成分被插入到句子中间时,应在这一成分前后加逗号与主句隔开。

  当然,当以上这些容易出错的词或短语后面跟的成分本身是完整的句子,就可以用句号与前后的句子连接,如:Mike has ever kept different kinds of pets. For example, last year he had a snake.

  4)缺失主语,如练习中的第五个句子:Most people love getting birthday presents. But hate writing thank-you notes. 对于这种错误的句子,我们可以 a) 直接将缺失主语的不完整成分和前面完整的句子粘合在一起,如:Most people love getting birthday presents but hate writing thank-you notes.或者 b) 将缺失的主语补上,如:Most people love getting birthday presents. But they hate writing thankyounotes.

  以上四种不完整句/句子片段在学生习作中最常见的是第一和第三种情况,即从属连词的使用会导致出错和增加细节进行说明时也容易出错。因此,在这两种情况下要特别谨慎以免出错。

  2. 串句

  串句的一种Comma Splices 在中国学生的英语写作中最常见。因为受到汉语中逗号用法的影响,在进行英语写作时,当一个句子中一套主谓结构已完整而意思上还与下一句连贯时,学生就习惯性地使用逗号而非句号或分号来粘连两个独立的句子,因此这种错误就叫做逗号粘连(CommaSplices)。然而在英语中,当一套主谓结构已完整时,必须用句号、分号、感叹号或问号来与后面的句子相连接,绝不能用逗号。下面举一个简单的例子来说明,汉语句子为“今天下午我没课,有个讲座,我就去听了。”英语的表述为“This afternoon I didn't have any class; there was a lecture, so Iattended it.”其中,有三个完整的主谓结构,以分号和逗号加并列连词来断开,若全部只用逗号就成为串句了。以上学生的错误例句:I stared at the dark blue sky with stars shining like diamonds, I feltthe breeze softly kissing my cheek & I heard the pigeons flying back home. 问题也在于逗号被用来断开两个完整的句子。建议改为:I stared at the dark blue sky with stars shining like diamonds, felt the breezesoftly kissing my cheek, and heard the pigeons flying back home.本文起始练习部分的第六个句子也是一个串句: I dread going to parties, however, my husband loves meeting new people. 这个句子中出现了一个词however,因此我们有必要再来看看第2期提到的一个需要特别注意的问题,就是一些最常见的过渡词的用法,这些过渡词也称为连接性副词,最常见的有however, instead, therefore,nevertheless,meanwhile,otherwise,indeed,also,moreover,furthermore,thus,consequently以及几个用法相同的词组如on the other hand, in addition, as a result等等,通常它们的用法是在其前用分号在其后用逗号。因此以上错句可以改为: I dread going to parties; however, my husband lovesmeeting new people.

  另一种形式的串句Fused Sentences就是在两个完整的句子之间根本没有用任何标点符号来连接,而是完全熔合在一起,因此也称为熔合句(Fused Sentences),如练习中第七个句子:Mario toldeveryone in the room to be quiet his favorite show was on.这个句子可以改为:Mario told everyone in theroom to be quiet, for his favorite show was on.熔合句在学生的习作中并非常见的错误,因为在一个句子写完整之后他们有意识给句子加标点,只是对于该用什么标点符号,不是很有把握,容易出错。

  串句的修改方法通常有三种,一是用逗号断开两个完整的句子但是要用一个并列或从属连词来连接;二是用一个分号将两个完整的句子断开;三是用分号加连接性副词加逗号的方式将两个完整的句子断开。比如下面这句串句就可以用不同的方法来修改:

  During the rainy season more water flows over Victoria Falls than over any other falls in the world,severalotherfallsarehigherthanVictoria.

  →1) During the rainy season more water flows over Victoria Falls than over any other falls in the world,but / although several other falls are higher than Victoria.

  →2) During the rainy season more water flows over Victoria Falls than over any other falls in the world;severalotherfallsarehigherthanVictoria.

  →3) During the rainy season more water flowsover Victoria Falls than over any other falls in the world;however, several other falls are higher than Victoria.当然,还有一种方法是在两个句子之间加句号,不过这是最不可取的方法,因为加句号无法像其他方法那样反映出两个句子的关系。

  最后我们再来做一个练习,在这个段落中有不完整句和串句,还有其他类型的常见错误,约10 处,请找出并改正,答案及分析请见下期。

  Being a waitress is an often underrated job. A waitress needs the tact of a diplomat, she must be asorganized as a business executive, and the ability of an acrobat. Serving as the link between customers andkitchen, the most demanding diners must be satisfied, and the often-temperamental kitchen help must bekept tamed. Both groups tend to blame the waitress whenever anything goes wrong. Somehow, she is heldresponsible by the customer for any delay (even if it's the kitchens fault), for an overcooked steak, or for anunavailable dessert. While the kitchen automatically blames her for the diners who change their orders orreturn those burned steaks. In addition she must simultaneously keep straight who ordered what at each table,who is yelling for the check, and whether the new arrivals want cocktails or not. She must be sure emptytables are cleared, everyone has refills of coffee, and no one is scowling because a request for more rolls aregoing unheard. Finally the waitress must travel a hazardous route between the busy kitchen and the crowdeddining room, she has to dodge a diners leg in the aisle or a swinging kitchen door. And you must do this whilebalancing a tray heaped with steaming platters. The hardest task of the waitress, though, is trying to maintaina decent imitation of a smile on her face—most of the time.
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