新概念英语第二册详细笔记

2010-08-12 15:37:37   Tag:

新概念英语

 

英语学习方法

 
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新概念英语第二册详细笔记:复合句可用两种方法构成:一是用连词把从句与主句连接起来;二是用分词结构或不定式。


复合句的语序

复合句可用两种方法构成:一是用连词把从句与主句连接起来;二是用分词结构或不定式。

1、用连词连接的复合句

① 在复合句中,从句可以是名词从句(即起名词的作用)。在句子中,它可以作主语、宾语或be等系动词的表语,一般由that引导,有时也用what(疑问词引导的除外) I know (that) the meeting will be put off.

② 从句可以是关系(或形容词)从句,关系代词通常有who,whom,that,which和whose。

③ 从句可以是状语(或副词)从句,时间状语连词有when,after,before,as soon as,until,while,as,since等;地点状语从句连词有where,everywhere,anywhere等;方式状语从句连词有as或短语in the way (that)等,方式状语从句在动词be,feel,seem,appear等后面也可以由连词as if和as though来引导;原因状语从句由because,as等引导;条件状语从句可由if及其他连词引导;让步状语从句使句子具有对比的因素,它们一般由连词although,though,even though,even if等引导;目的状语从句可由so that,in order that等连词引导;结果状语从句描述结果,可由so+形容词+that引导,也可由such (a) +(形容词) + 名词 + that来引导;比较状语从句结构包括as +形容词/副词 + as,not so/as … as,形容词/副词的比较级 +than,more…than,less…than等 He has been ill since he came back from his holidays.

With a special train ticket, you can travel anywhere/everywhere you like in Europe for just over $100.

Type this again as/in the way (that) I showed you just now.

As you can’t go yourself, you’ll have to ask Susan go for you.

既然你自己不能去,那你就请苏珊替你去吧。

2、分词结构的复合句

① 用现在分词结构可以代替时间从句、原因从句、关系从句等,现在分词结构的这种用法仅限于两个动作的主语一致的时候。用它代替时间从句时,分词结构表示的动作如果发生在前,则分词结构要位于主语前;如果两个动作同时发生,那么分词结构既可以位于主句前,也可以位于主句后。分词结构位于主句前面时,要用逗号隔开。

I got very angry speaking to them.

Feeling tired, I went to bed earlier than usual.

Following his mom, he went there.(主动概念, 跟着他母亲去了那儿)

② 过去分词结构常用于比较正式的文体,往往代替被动语态

Damaged in an accident, the car has now been repaired.

Followed by his mom, he went there. (被动概念, 被他母亲带着跟着去了那儿)

3、不定式结构的复合句

这种结构通常可以代替表示目的或表示条件的状语从句:

To get into university you have to pass a number of examinations.

【Multiple choice questions】

3、___b___ the hot weather, he couldn't sleep indoors.

a. Because b. Because of c. As d. For

because,as,for+句子,不能加词组;because of +名词 因为……

5、How ___b___ did he sleep?

a. good b. well c. good d. nice

how对形容词或者副词提问

He slept well. (how对程度副词提问)

The tree is tall. How tall is the tree?

He sang songs beautifully. How beautifully did he sing?

6、Where was the courtyard? c

a. Down. b. Under. c. Below. d. Bottom.

down adv. 在……下(向下)

go down, sit down

under 介词必须加宾语

below adv. 下面, 表示一种状态

bottom n. 下面

7、He looked at the bits of wood and metal ___c___ around him.

a. laying b. laid c. lying d. lied

laying(lay) vt. 放 (lay the egg(下蛋))

lying(lie vi. 躺 lie in bed)

lie(lied,lied) 撒谎

过去分词属于非谓语动词, 做定语时与被修饰词形成被动关系

8 A gust of wind swept the bed off the roof. The wind blew very ___a___.

a. hard b. fast c. quickly d. soon

a gust of wind 一阵风

hard 修饰动词, 表示程度大 study hard 努力学习

9 The bed crashed into the courtyard. It ___c___ the courtyard.

a. smashed b. knocked c. struck d.exploded

crash vi.从上往下掉, 摔碎;smash vt. 摔碎;knock v. 敲击;

explode v. 爆炸;struck v. 撞击

11 He glanced at the bits of wood and metal. He ___a___ the bits of wood and metal.

a. looked quickly at b. had a glimpse of c. stared at d.watched

glance at (漫不经心的)扫视,(主动的看)

look quickly at 快速地看

had a glimpse of (无意识的)看

stare at 盯着看

watch 注视, 密切关注

Lesson 50 Taken for a ride

【New words and expressions】(4)

★ride n. 旅行(不走路的);v. 骑(车, 马)

trip n.(出差性的)旅行(旅行地方不远或呆的时间不长)

travel n.(周游世界性的)旅行

journey n.(陆地上的)旅行

flight n.(空中)旅行

voyage n.(海上)旅行

tour n. 游玩

sightseeing n. 观光游

★excursion n. 远足,游玩, 郊游(距离不会很远)

weekend's excursion 周末游

a day's excursion 一日游

Tomorrow we will have a day's excursion.

★view n. 景色(主观性较强)

in one's view=in one's opinion 就某人看来

sight n. 景色, 视线, 视野(强调客观)

Can I have a room with a good view?

【课文讲解】

1、Taken for a ride

take…for… 把……当作……

taken for a ride 就当作是一次兜风

take sb. for a ride 欺骗 taken for 上当了

2、I love travelling in the country, but I don't like losing my way.

love/ like doing sth. 喜欢做某事(强调一种习惯)

I love my brother, but I don't like his girlfriend.

I love having dinner with you, but I don't like paying for dinner.

lose one’s way 迷路

3、I went on an excursion recently, but my trip took me longer than I expected.

go on an excursion =have an excursion 作一次短距离的旅行

go on 进行,为(某一目的)而去

I’ll go on holiday next month.

Did you go on a trip last month?

take sb. some time 花费某人多少时间

My trip took me a long time.

It takes sb. some time to do sth. 花费某人多少时间

It took me a month to learn book 2.

It takes sb. some time that… 花费某人多少时间

sb. spend some time (on) doing sth.

I spent a month learning English.

sb. spend some time on sth.

金钱上的花费cost, pay for sth.

than I expected 比我所预料的(口语)

The question is easier than I expected.

You are more beautiful than I expected.

You are better than I expected.

The holiday took you longer than I expected.

than I thought 比我原以为的

The English class took me longer than I thought.

4、'but I don't know where it is.'

where it is [?] 注意单词的连读,音标以元音音标结尾,字母以“re”或“er”结尾的,会与下一个元音之间加“r”这个音。

5、'I'll tell you where to get off.' answered the conductor.

get on the bus 上车 ;get off the bus 下车

I will tell you where you can (should) get off.

No one got on/off (the bus) at the last bus stop.

“特殊疑问词+to+动词原形”可用来取代宾语从句

Can you tell me how I can get there? =Can you tell me how to get there?

Can you tell me what I should do ? =Can you tell me what to do?

I don't know which to choose.

I wonder when to have a meeting.

Can you tell me how to begin a letter?

【语法精粹】

1、Did you find out__c__the pie out of oven?

a. to take b. have taken c. when to take d. being taken

find out 发现

take sth. out of 取出来

Did you find out when we could(can)take the pie out of oven?

你发现什么时候才能把馅饼从烤箱中拿出来了吗?

6、I sat in the front of the bus to get a good view of the countryside.

in the front of 在(某一事物的)前部,前者属于后者的范围

The teacher stands in the front of the classroom.

in front of 在……前面,前者不属于后者的范围

The teacher stands in front of the students.

get a good view of 欣赏……的美景

I stood at the window to get a good view of the city.

7、Looking round, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus.

非谓语动词(现在分词或过去分词)做状语, 这个动作必然与主句主语有关:-ing与主句主语构成主动关系;-ed 与主句主语构成被动关系;to do与主句主语构成目的关系

如果非谓语动词做定语, 只与被修饰词相关, 与主语无关

passing plain 路过的飞机; ploughed field 耕过的地

如果-ing/-ed做宾补, 与宾语有关

I find the door locked. (locked被动,门被锁)

with+ n. 表示状态

I do sth with an excitement.

left放在被修饰词之后

on the bus = in the bus 在火车上、汽车上既可以用“in”又可用“on”

8、'This is as far as we go.'

as far as + 从句 到……程度/限度,就……的限度而言

as far as we go=we couldn't go any more

This is as far as I can do.

I can't bear(it any more). / It was more than I could bear. = This is as far as I bear.

This is as far as I can understand.

This is as far as I can afford. 我只能付这么多钱

As far as I now, they haven’t returned from abroad.

This is as far as I can help you.

9、'Oh dear,' said the conductor suddenly. 'I forgot to put you off.'

oh dear 哦, 天呐

forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事

I forget to shut the door. 我忘了锁门

forget doing sth. 忘记已经做了什么事

I forget shutting the door. 我忘了门已经锁了

put sb. off 让……下车(或飞机、船等)

put sb. off =remind sb. to do 提醒(某人)……

put sb. off 推脱, 敷衍

My son always asks me to take him up. I always put him off.

put sth. off 推迟, 延期

put off the meeting,put off the appointment

10、'Well, in that case, I prefer to stay on the bus,' I answered.

in that(this) case 如果那样(这样)的话,既然是那样(这样)

Is he one of your best friends? In that/this case, you may invite him.

prefer to do sth. 宁可做某事

prefer to do…rather than… 宁可……也不……

【letter writing】

给朋友写信要称呼他们的名字,如“亲爱的弗雷德”,决不要以“亲爱的朋友”类的词语开头。

给亲戚写信,则可以这样开头:亲爱的妈妈、亲爱的爸爸、亲爱的弗雷德叔叔、亲爱的艾丽丝姨妈,但决不可称“亲爱的表兄”,或“亲爱的弗雷德表兄”。

给长辈写信,长辈中的直系亲属不加名字,只加称谓;长辈中的旁系亲属既要加称谓,又要加名字。给平辈的亲属写信,直接称呼名字,不加称谓。

【Summry writing】

1 Where did the writer want to go? Did he know the way or not? What did the conductor promise to do? (but as)

“but as” 并不是并列短语, 两者连在一起仅仅是巧合

The writer wanted to go to Woodfast Green but as he did not know the way, the conductor promised to tell him where to get off.

第一句和第二句之间是 “but” 关系, 第二句和第三句之间为 “as” 关系, 所以产生 “but as”

【Key structures】 

表示习惯性动作

表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词appear,appreciate,believe,feel,forget,hear,know,like,look,notice,remember,resemble,see,think,understand,belong to,consist of,contain,desire,detest,dislike,hate,hope,love,matter,mean,mind,need,want,wish常用于一般现在时而不用于进行时

【Special Difficulties】

Lose, Loose, Miss.

lose [?] vt. 失去,丧失,遗失,丢失

Roy has lost his job again.

She lost her parents when she was sixteen.

If you bet on that horse you will lose your money. (bet on sth 就……打赌)

loose [?] adj. 松动的,松的,松开的

Servral screws have come loose. (come loose,松了(系动词+adj.))

The handle of this suitcase is very / has come loose.

miss v. 怀念, 思念, 错过,未能……,缺(课等),惦念,想念

Hurry or you’ll miss the train.

I missed my English lesson.

missing adj. 不见了的

sth. is lost = sth. is missing

missing boy 失踪了的孩子(不能用 “lost” )

Expect, Wait for

expect可以表示“预计……可能发生(或来到),等待,期盼”,它表示等待时往往侧重人的心理而不是具体在某个地方等。

I expect / I’m expecting to hear from you.

I’m expecting the bus to arrive in the next ten minutes.

My trip took me longer than I expected.

wait for主要指“等待”这个动作本身。

I’m waiting for the next bus.

【Multiple choice questions】

4 The trip took him longer than he expected. He didn't expect it to last ___c___.

a. longer b. as long c. so long d. such a long

last v. 延续

for a long time = long

I have waited for you for a long time = I have waited for you long.

5‘Where ___c___ get off?’I asked.‘I'll tell you where to get off,’answered the conductor.

a. to b. for c. shall I d. in order to

但在日常口语中语法概念很弱,如“What to do?”也常常使用,不符合语法, 但在写作时语法概念要很强.

7 This is as far as we go. We don't go ___a___.

a. any further b. more far c. further more d. so far

not any more = not any longer = not any further 不再……

further more 更进一步, 更有甚者的是

9 The writer got on the bus, but he didn't know where to ___b___.

a. get down b. get off c. get out of d. get over

下某种交通工具, 一定要用 get off

get down: 如吃完饭后, 下桌子时会用 get down(不会和下车相连)

After dinner, I got down. 我吃完饭后, 离开了桌子.

get out of + 地方 从……地方出去

get over 恢复

12 I prefer to stay on the bus. That's ___d___.

a. my favourite b. my best c. beloved d. what I'd like to do best

I’d like to do… 我愿意做某事

What I’d like to do best. 我最想要做的事

I like sth. best. 我最喜欢的事

Lesson 51 Reward for Virtue

【New words and expressions】(10)

★reward n. 报偿;v. 给奖赏

give sb. reward 给……报偿

reward sb. with sth. 用……奖赏...

reward sb. for sth. 因为……给某人奖赏

…reward him for the first prize

★virtue n. 美德

strongpoints n. 长处, merit n. 优点

shortpoints n. 短处, weak points 弱点

★diet n. 节食

go on a diet =be on a diet 实行节食

★forbid [??](forbade[??],forbidden[??]) v.禁止

forbid sb. to do sth. 禁止某人做某事

allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事

Forbidden City 紫禁城 (被禁止的城市) ;Forbidden fruit 禁果

★embarrass v. 使尴尬

sth. embarrass sb. ……让……感到尴尬

You embarrassed me. 你让我感到尴尬

embarrassing adj. 令人尴尬地;embarrassed adj. 感到尴尬

embarrassment n. 尴尬

To my embarrassment,… 让我感到尴尬的是……

★guiltily adv. 内疚地

guiltily conscience 问心有愧

clear conscience 问心无愧

★strict adj. 严格的

be strict with sb. 对某人严格

My father is strict with me.

be strict in sth. 对……严格

★occasionally adv. 偶而地

on the occasion 偶尔, sometimes 偶尔 ,at times 偶尔

off and on 偶尔 , now and again 偶尔

【课文讲解】

1、My friend, Hugh, has always been fat, but things got so bad recently that he decided to go on a diet.

things(要用复数形式)可以表示“情况,情形,状况,形势”等含义:

You’re surely made things worse.

How are things going on with you?

get作不及物动词时可以表示“变得”:

I got interested in French.

diet用于表示治疗某种疾病或调节体重的“特种饮食”、“规定饮食”时通常与on连用:

The doctor put him on a strict diet. 医生让他严格控制饮食。

I once went on a diet for a week and then I gave up.

2、First of all, he wrote out a long list of all the foods which were forbidden.

first of all 首先, 首要 (许多事情中首要的, 即最重要的)

First of all I must see your passpart.

at first 首先(句型at first…, then… 起先……然后……)

write out 写出,(正式)写,全部写出

You should werite out a report.

3、The list included most of the things Hugh loves: butter, potatoes, rice, beer, milk, chocolate; and sweets.

most of… 大部分……

includ和contain都有“包含”的意思,但contain可以用于表示所包含的全部事物;include则只表示其中的一部分。contain一定是容器里面装,include则含义更广,在这里不能用contain。

It included three bags of sweets.

Does the bill include a tip?

We’re including you in our team.

4、Yesterday I paid him a visit.

pay sb. a visit 拜访某人

Pay you a visit.

pay a visit to sb./someplace 拜访某人/某地.

call up sb./at someplace 拜访某人/某地

have a visit=visit

5、I rang the bell and was not surprised to see that Hugh was still as fat as ever.

as…as ever 像往常一样,照旧,依然

as clean as ever;as quiet as ever

be surprised to do sth. / be surprised at sth.

6、He led me into his room and hurriedly hid a large parcel under his desk.

lead sb. into(进门); show sb. out(出门); see sb. off(送行)

7、It was obvious that he was very embarrassed.

obviously <adv.> = it was obvious that…(it 为形式主语) 显然……

【Letter writing】

如果给一个不很熟悉的人写信, 应按如下方式开头:亲爱的布朗先生,亲爱的史密斯夫人。在姓名之后总要加上一个逗号。对对方熟悉, 但是为了表示一种尊重, 也可这么写。

写信开头:你的姐姐(Dear +姐姐的名字), 你的朋友比尔(Dear Bill), 你的老板(Dear Mr./Mrs. +某人), 你的老校长(Dear Mr./Mrs. +姓)。

在不知道对方性别姓名时 : 如应聘信开头 Dear Sir/Madam,

【Key structures】 

一般过去时

与一般过去时常用的两个词是once和recently,recently在表示“最近一段时期”时也可以与现在完成时连用。

一般过去时可以用于时间状语从句中,一般过去时可以用于与最近的打算比较时。

【Special difficulties】

Raise and Rise.

rais作动词时只能作及物动词,即它必须跟宾语。它可以表示“举起,往上提,使……升高”等含义:

Will those who agree with me please raise their hands?

Why did they raise prices?

Heavy rains have raised the level of the river this year.

rise作动词时通常为不及物动词,表示“起立,起床,(日、月等)升起”等含义:

You’re still in bed and the sun has already risen!

All the students rose when the teacher came into the classroom.

Lay and Lie.

lay(laid,laid) vt. 置,搁,铺,准备

I laid your clothes on the bed so you could put them away.

If you can’t cook the dinner, you can at least lay the table.

lie(lay,lain) vi. 躺,平卧

Are you going to spend the whole morning lying in bed?

Beat and Win.

beat vt. 打败,战胜,胜过,超过

They beat their enemy, though they were fewer in number.

I beat you. 我打败了你。

表示一个球队打败另一个球队也用beat。

win vt. 在……获胜(成功),赢得,获得,夺得

Who won the race/ the war?

beat后面接对手,win不能接对手。

【Multiple choice questions】

4 How long ago ___d___his diet?

a.will he begin b.has he begun c. was he beginning d. did he begin

注意因为有ago的词, 一定不用完成时, 用一般过去时

11 He was very embarrassed. He felt ___d___.

a.shy b.shameful c.hot d.uncomfortable

注意以下三类词:

① 感官动词feel, smell(闻起来 : The food smeel well.), sound(听起来 : The idea sound good.)

② 变得get , become

③ lie

feel+adj

shy [???] adj. 害羞的(习惯性的, 在某一种情况下就会作出的反应)

shame [??] n. 羞愧

shameful adj. 令人羞愧的

It’s shameful. (注意它没有 “-ing” 形式)

ashamed [???] adj. 感到羞愧的

I am ashamed.

hot adj. 热的, 恼火的

uncomfortable adj. 不舒服的, 不放松的 (comfortable 一种自在, 轻松, 放松)

ill adj. 生病

I feel ill.

terrible adj. 糟透了, 不舒服

Lesson 52 A pretty carpet

【New words and expressions】(4)

★inch [????] n. 英寸(度量单位)

foot 英尺(pl. feet ); mile 英里

★space [?????] n. 空间

注意读音浊化, 六个爆破音中有三个清辅音 [?????] 在 [?] 后面是要浊化为对应的三个浊辅音 [?????] 又如 school [?????]

★actually [?????????] adv. 实际上=in fact

【课文讲解】

1、We have just moved into a new house and I have been working hard all morning.

现在完成进行时用来强调动作在某一段时间内一直在进行,而且动作有现在的结果。现在完成时表示在漫长地时间段,过去发生的, 还一定要对现在产生影响;在过去发生的动作, 一直延续到现在,现在完成时, 动词一定是延续性动词

It has rained for half day.

It has been raining.

2、I have been trying to get my new room in order.

get sth. in order 使……有秩序,把……整理好(get 使役动词)

in order 整齐,井然有序,有秩序, 有次序

Get/Put everything in order before you leave the room.

3、This has not been easy because I own over a thousand books.

★own

① vt. 拥有

I own over a thousand books.

② vt. &vi. 承认

He owned to stealing the wallet.

He owned (that) he had made a mistake.

③ adj. 自己的

He has a car of his own.

He lives in his own house.

4、To make matters worse, the room is rather small, so I have temporarily put my books on the floor.

to make matters worse 更糟糕的是……,插入语

I lost my way in the forest, and to make matters worse, it became dark.

rather adj. 相当的

5、At the moment, they cover every inch of floor space and I actually have to walk on them to get in or out of the room.

at the moment = now 现在,此刻,目前

every inch 每一英寸(夸张)

Gold covered every inch of the ground in America.

It is worth every penny of it.

6、A short while ago, my sister helped me to carry one of my old bookcases up the stairs.

help sb. (to) do sth. 帮某人做某事(to 可省略)

help sb. with sth. 帮某人做某事

He help me to learn English.

He help me with my English.

with one’s help 在某人的帮助下

With your help i made great progress.

7、'This is the prettiest carpet I have ever seen,' she said.

“I have ever seen” 做定语从句出现, 是最高级的标志

8、She gazed at it for some time then added, 'You don't need bookcases at all. You can sit here in your spare time and read the carpet!'

gazed at 对……向往, 羡慕

not at all 完全不,起强调作用

in one’s spare time 某人空闲的时候,spare表示“空闲的,多余的”

I like to read in my spare time.

Have you got a spare moment? 你(现在)有空吗?

【Key structures】 

现在完成时,现在完成进行时

现在完成时:have done,表示已完成的动作

现在完成进行时:have been doing,强调动作在某一段时间内一直在进行,而且动作现在有结果。到现在为止,该动作可能已不再继续进行,也可能还在继续进行,这要根据上下文来确定。句子中常含有all+表示时间的词语如all day,all morning等或for和since。

I have read the book. 书已看完

I have been reading the book. 还没看完, 还要继续

表示持续性的动词,如learn,lie,live,rain,sleep,stand,可以同since或for副词短语连用,也可用于以how long开头的疑问句中:

I’ve been working for Exxon for 15 years.

现在完成进行时还可以表示经常重复的动作:

Jim has been phoning Jenny every night for the last week.

与段时间连用可以用现在完成时, 也可以用现在完成进行时, 但跟次数连用的, 一定只能用完成时, 不能用现在完成进行时

He has rung me up five times since 12 o’clock.

【语法精髓】

1、You should go to bed. You _____ (watch) TV for 5 hours.

2、I _____ (write) letters since breakfast.

3、I _____ (write) 3 letters since breakfast.

4、Sorry, but Mr.Smith _____ (leave) for Beijing.

5、I _____ (look) for him everywhere, where can he be?

1、have been watching/have watched

2、having been writing

3、have written

4、has left

和现在完成进行时连用的, 一定不能是次数;和现在完成进行时连用的动词, 一定不能是短暂动词,leave是瞬间动词

5、have been looking 通过 “where can he be?” 这句话可知人没找到, 还要继续找

【Special Difficulties】

形容词、相应的副词及其用法:

许多副词,特别是表示方式的副词,皆由形容词加-ly构成,如easy(容易的)/easyly(容易地),beautiful(漂亮的)/beautifully(漂亮地)。一些频度副词也如此构成,如usual(通常)/usually(通常地)。还有少数几个表示程度及观点的副词也都以-ly结尾:high(高的)/highly(高度地),real(真的)/really(真正的)。

大多数形容词加 “ly” 变为副词 : 如 beautiful--beautifully,但是不是所有的形容词都可以加ly(asleep);不是所有的副词都一定以ly结尾(late);不是所有的加ly的都是副词(lovely)

有些副词虽然由形容词加-ly构成,但在意义上与其相应的形容并不相同,如hard(勤奋的,困难的)/hardly(几乎不),cold(冷的)/coldly(冷淡的),late(迟到的,晚的)/lately(最近,近来),near(近的,接近的)/nearly(几乎,差不多,差点儿)。

有些副词有两种形式。有的意义相同,如cheap(廉价的)/cheaply(廉价地),但有的意义不同如late(迟,晚)/lately(近来),hard(努力地,猛烈地)/hardly(几乎不)。

late<adj. , adv.> 迟 ; lately adv. 近来(=recently)

hard<adj. , adv.> 努力地(表示程度深), 困难地(=difficult) ;hardly几乎不

high<adj.>高的 ,〈adv.>高度地 ;highly〈adv.> 高度地 (不能用尺度测量的, 抽象的)

deep<adj. , adv.> 深的; deeply 〈adv.> 深度地 (不能用尺度测量的, 抽象的)

near<adj. , adv.> 在旁边的 ;nearly 〈adv.> 几乎, 将近

有些副词在形式上与形容词相同,如fast,past,far等。

大多数方式副词的位置一般在宾语或动词前面,表示时间的副词常位于句尾,有时也可位于句首。程度副词,如almost,enough,hardly,nearly,quite,rather,too等,大部分用在它们所修饰的动词之前。

副词修饰动词(walk quickly), 形容词(very beautiful), 副词词性本身(very much), 还可以修饰句子

Quite and Quiet

quite adv. 完全,相当,很

I’m quite ready. 我已全准备好了。

Are you quite certain? 你敢完全肯定吗?

quiet adj. 安静的,平静的,静止的,寂静的

The sea was very quiet this morning. 今天上午上海很平静。

The house became quiet again when the children were gone.

【Multiple choice questions】

3 He has been working all morning and he ___c___hard.

a.still works b.has still worked c. is still working d.still worked

still works 一般现在时是一种习惯

4 He's been trying to get his room in order. He wants to ___a___.

a.make it tidy b. keep it tidy c. made order d. keep order

keep order 保持秩序

动词+宾语+形容词(做宾补),此类动词常见的有 : get, keep, make, find (其中get make 是使役动词)

7 The writer ___c___bookcases.

a.needn't b.needs not c. doesn't need d.isn't needing

needn’t 情态动词后面不能加动词

need not 实义动词后面不能加not,need 不用进行时态

10 He actually has to walk on them. He can't do ___c___.

a.else b.different c.otherwise d.other

else一定放在不定代词和疑问代词后面anything else,anybody else,who else,what else等

different形容词, 动词后应加副词或名词做宾语, 而不是形容词

other形容词;the other代词

★otherwise

①conj. 否则, 不然

Hurry up, otherwise you will miss train.

② adj. 另外的, 其他方面的

③ adv. 另外, 否则, 不同地, 别的方式 (=differently)

12 You can sit here in your spare time. You can sit here when you're ___d___.

a.working b.studying c.not working d.reading

spare time = not work

在考试时没上下文是答案为c;在本课文中应为d

Lesson 53 Hot snake

【New words and expressions】(13)

★hot adj. 带电的, 充电的

hot adj. 热的;新鲜的;棘手的;带电的, 充电的

hot-hot-hot 麻辣烫;hot-wings 辣鸡翅;hot dog 热狗

hot-tempered 火暴(脾气)的 (temper[??????] n. 脾气)

hot line 热线;hot topic 热门话题

hot cake 热蛋糕

It sells like a hot cake/cakes. 表示一个东西的畅销, 热销

best seller 畅销的东西

hot potato 棘手的问题

hot news 最热点的新闻

★fireman n. 消防队员

hydrant [?????????] n. 消防栓, 消防龙头

fire extinguisher 灭火器 (extinguisher[??????????] n. 熄灭者, 灭火器)

extinguish=put out 灭火

★cause v.& n. 引起;原因

① v. 引起

cause sth. 引起麻烦

Carelessness causes accidents. 粗心导致事故

Pride causes failure. 骄傲使人失败

cause sb. to do sth. 引起某人做某事, 导致某人做某事

Illness caused him to lose his temper. (lose one’s temper 发火)

② n. 原因,强调事情发生的直接原因(一个)

because 因为

reason 理由,其他各种的理由(很多个)

★examine v. 检查

examine the soil

check v. 核实, 核对

★accidentally adv. 意外地, 偶然地 (但更趋向于 “偶然” 的意思)

accident->accidental->accidentally

accident n. 事故

unexpectedly adv. 出乎意料地(更趋向于 “意外” 的意思)

★remains n. 尸体, 残骸

remains指dead body

★solve v. 解决

solve the mystery solve the problem

★snatch v. 抓住

catch v. 抓,如抓鱼

hold v. 握着

snatch v. (突然抓起来)强调动作的突然性

seize v. 抓住(用力)

seize my arm

【课文讲解】

1、Hot snake

hot snake 触电的蛇

get a electric shock 触电

2、At last firemen have put out a big forest fire in California.

at last 最后,终于

put out a fire 扑灭火(put out扑灭,熄灭,关掉)

Please put the light/fire out.

a fire 一场(堆)火

3、Since then, they have been trying to find out how the fire began.

since then 从那时起,到现在为止

find out (经过研究、努力等)找出,发现,查出……(这里find out的宾语是个从句)

I’ll try and find out the name of the person who saved my life yesterday.

4、Forest fires are often caused by broken glass or by cigarette ends which people carelessly throw away.

broken glass 被打碎的玻璃片

cigarette ends 烟头

5、They were also quite sure that a cigarette end did not start the fire.

be able to 能够 ;be not able to 没有能够

be sure that 对……很有把握;quite sure 相当的把握性

rather adv. 相当

fairly [??????] adv. 相当, 公正地, 诚实地

quite(=completely)->rather->fairly 程度一个比一个轻

quite a few 颇有几个(相当多的)

start a fire=cause a fire (start vt. 使……发生,引起)

6、This morning, however, a firemen accidentally discovered the cause.

accidentally =by chance 偶然地

discover本身含有偶然发现(某个已经存在的东西)的含义

I don’t know who discovered America.

7、He noticed the remains of a snake which was wound round the electric wires of a 16,000-volt power line.

notice 注意别人没注意的东西

the remains表示“尸体,残骸”,必须用复数形式:

The villagers were surprised to see the remains of an aeroplane near the lake.

16,000-volt power line 连字符“-” 一旦加在两个词之间, 这个词之间就失去了加复数的资格, 能够加连字符的概念一定是做定语

★wind [?????] vt. 缠绕,卷在……上;盘旋,蜿蜒

① vt. 缠绕,卷在……上(常与around/round连用)

Did you wind this piece of wire round the tree?

② vt. 蜿蜒,盘旋

wind one's way 蜿蜒而行

8、In this way, he was able to solve the mystery.

in this way 就这样

9、A bird had snatched up the snake from the ground and then dropped it on to the wires.

had done 先发生的事

drop 无意掉下去的

10、When it did so, it sent sparks down to the ground and these immediately started a fire.

do so 这么做

I refuse to do so. 我拒绝这么做

so常用于一些动词之后,代指前面提过的某个动作/某件事,以免重复

I think/believe so.

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