2010年高考英语作文预测:议论文

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2010年高考英语作文预测:议论文:议论文是采用逻辑证明或推理的方法, 阐述作者的立场和观点的一种文体。在议论文的写作过程中, 可以从正面提出自己的某一观点, 也可以针对某种错误的观点进行批评反驳。议论文一般应该具备论点、论据和结论三个要素, 在写议论文的时候, 要注意五个方面的问题……

短文写作文体及其写作要领

常见的英语作文文体包括描写文(Description)、叙述文(Narration)、说明文(Exposition)和议论文(Argumentation)。

一、议 论 文

议论文是采用逻辑证明或推理的方法, 阐述作者的立场和观点的一种文体。在议论文的写作过程中, 可以从正面提出自己的某一观点, 也可以针对某种错误的观点进行批评反驳。议论文一般应该具备论点、论据和结论三个要素, 在写议论文的时候, 要注意五个方面的问题, 即, 主题明确, 论据充分, 逻辑严密, 结构清楚, 态度忠诚友好。议论文就种类来说可以分为以下四种类型。

(1) 比较性议论文(Analyzing-Alternative Essay)。 比较性议论文用于在两种或两种以上的事物或观点之间作出比较。在对两种事物或观点作比较时, 一定要找出它们的异同点, 在对两事物进行比较和对照之后, 要明确提出自己的见解或认识。例如:

例1.Directions: Traditional ways of life are often changed by modern technology. Using one or two examples of such changes, compare the new ways with the old. Which way of life do you like better? Why?

Technology threatens and inflicts damage upon our quality of life. Scientific achievement of this century is creating a wide- spread plague that would soon destroy the entire world. Let's take, for example, our air. Due to massive air pollution, what we breathe is not relatively safe as it used to be. The fumes from the exhaust pipes of automobiles, trucks and factories blow waste materials into the atmosphere. After a period of time, atmospheric change occur. The fumes, that were collected in atmosphere, are slowly eating away at the ozone layer. This layer of the atmosphere is what shields us from solar ultra -violent rays. Once this layer is gone, our natural protection against the sun would be gone, and if we were hit by one ray of the sun, we'd burst into flames and fired into a cinder.

Another plague of technology would be nuclear power. The power that can energize entire cities with electricity could also be the power to destroy. After 1945, the research on nuclear power has increased significantly. Contrary to the belief that it is safe, nuclear power has a way of destroying the whole cities. It is not like a fire that can be put out with water or CO2, but special equipments have to be used. Afterwards, that place would remain radioactive for quite a long time, devoid of life and sound.

So you see, if technology cannot be halted, then our fate is sealed. Our end would not come about by natural means, but by our technological achievements. And life on Earth would cease to exist.

例2. Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Bicycle?An Important Means Transportation in China. You should base your composition on the following outline.

1. 为什么自行车在中国这样普及;
2. 和汽车比较;
3. 自行车在中国的前途;

Bicycle, as a means of transport, is an indispensable companion of most Chinese. Each Chinese family possesses at least one bicycle. China is therefore called ?he Bicycle Kingdom? The popularity of bicycle in China, I think, is mainly due to the economy of the country and its people. China, as one of the developing countries, has no financial potential to expand its road and to manufacture so many cars to satisfy the need of so many Chinese.
Compared with cars, bicycle, however, still has some advantages. First, it is very convenient. For its small size, it does not need special parking space. It can be parked almost everywhere. For its light weight, it can be carried upstairs and downstairs.

Second,driven by man power, it doesn't need fuel. Hence it has nothing to do with air pollution and energy crisis. Third, China is still a developing country. Most people can afford a bicycle, but not a more advanced vehicle car.

With so many advantages, bicycle will remain to be an important means of transport in China in the following years. But I think with the rapid development of Chinese economy, more and more Chinese will own a car. Cars will surely substitute bicycle in the future.

上面这篇短文是在不同的事物之间进行比较, 尽管没有明确地说明另一个事物的情况, 但在论述一个事物的同时, 另一种事物的特点也就很容易地体现出来了。

例3.Where to Live ?In the City or the Country

Many people appreciate the conveniences of the city. Living in large cities, people can participate in the political and cultural activities and see the latest films. In the city there are good schools for children and big department stores selling a great variety of goods produced in every part of the world.

While many people in the countryside are trying to come to the cities, the city dwellers have recognized the attractions of the country. In the countryside, the air is clean, the food is fresh, and the houses are usually spacious with large courtyard around them. If one enjoys fishing or gardening, then the country is where he should live.

However, living either in the city or in the country has its disadvantages. The city is always noisy and crowded, and its air is heavily polluted. But in the country, far away from the numerous exciting activities, one may feel isolated or bored. So, I prefer to live in the city where I can enjoy the conveniences offered by our civilization and take my vacations in the country, relaxing and appreciating the quiet and peaceful natural beauty.

(2) 驳斥性议论文(Pro-and-Con Essay)。 驳斥性议论文主要就有争议的观点发表自己的议论。在写作此类作文时, 要注意从正反两个方面对这些具有争议的观点进行分析, 然后再明确地提出自己的观点。例如:

Is TV a Plus or a Minus

TV is not only a convenient and cheap service of entertainment, but also a splendid mass medium of communication. People only have to pay once to buy the TV set, then they can sit at home enjoying the items on TV. All they have to do is to push a button or turn a knob, and they can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind. TV keeps us well informed about current events at home and abroad and the latest development in science and technology. The most distant countries and the strangest customs are brought right into our room. On TV everything is much more living and much more real. As a matter of fact, it has become so much a part of human life that a modern world without television is unimaginable. Some people even say that life without television is not worth living.

Some people argue against TV. They think the TV viewers need do nothing. The viewers does not even have to use his legs if he has a remote control. Many people are glued to seats to look at the movements on TV. They become so dependent on its pictures that it begins to control their lives. As a result, TV is taking up too much of a person's life and making him lazy, not to mention its harmful influence upon him, such as items of violence and pornography on television in some countries.

On the whole there are more advantages than disadvantages in the use of TV. Yet different people may have different attitudes toward TV. But we must realize that television in itself is neither good nor bad. Its value to people and society depends on how we look at it.

上文是一篇驳斥性的议论文, 电视是好是坏, 这是一个颇具争议的题目, 在这篇短文中, 作者通过评论他人的观点来说明自己观点的正确, 要读者接受自己的观点。第一段提出了认为电视对人有利的一些人的看法, 第二段讲述了认为电视对人有害的一些人的观点, 在正反两方面的基础上, 作者在第三段提出了自己的观点, 并认为自己的观点是全面正确的。

(3) 阐述性议论文(Inductive Essay)。 阐述性议论文主要就某一问题正面阐述自己的观点, 说明自己的理由。

For a Better understanding Between Parent and Child

Nowadays there is often a misunderstanding between parent and child. We often hear frustrated parents complain that their children are behaving unreasonably while many a child would so often say that his or her parents are just hopelessly old fashioned. When the child with a problem feels what he will probably get from his parents is incomprehension or criticism, he will go instead to his friends for sympathy and advice, leaving the parents totally unaware of his problem.

The most obvious reason for this lack of communication between parent and child is that they grew up at different times and therefore have different likes and dislikes for the things around them. Also parent is often too busy to listen patiently to the explanation of the child when there is a misunderstanding. Both of them take it for granted that there is a ?eneration gap.?BR> To bridge this so called generation gap, both parent and child should make an effort. They should try to look at things from the other's point of view. As a start, they should try to spend more time with each other.
The Project Hope?

Education plays a very important role in the modernization of our country. However, because of historical factors, there are still a lot of people in China who are undereducated, especially among youngsters in rural areas. They cannot afford the expenses of schooling and need help. At the same time, China is not able to invest enough money in the matter at present time. It is in this particular situation that the authorities carry out the project Hope?

This project is necessary to our country. It is an urgent measure that the government has taken. In the first place, this project will provide conditions for the youngsters to go back to school, which will contribute to their future success. Thus it will lead to the enhancement of intelligence level in our country. Secondly, education makes it possible for people to acquire knowledge, which is useful to their future work. Hence, this project benefits the modernization of our country a lot. Finally, it can make more people educated. Therefore, it may indirectly result in the increase of the living standards of our people.

In my opinion, this project is of great importance to our country at present time. And it also will have a profound effect on the future achievements in our country. I suggest that more work should be done so that every child in the countryside can receive elementary education.


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